Lesson 73: Suffixes, Adverbs, Desiderative


Forming Suffixes & Adverbs. New verb type: Desiderative (He desires to go).

Source: Introduction to Sanskrit (4th Ed) – Thomas Egenes – Part Two

Session deals with: VOL2, L30, PG 243-257

Suffixes:  (pratyaya प्रत्यय)

  • What is it? 
    • A short ending added to end of root or stem. It modifies the meaning. Study below examples…
      • English EG:
        • create    creation
        • cross     >  crossing.
      • Sanskrit EG: 
        • Root + suffix:
          • √jīv जीव् 1P: live            >  jīva जीव  (mas): living individual
          • √ās आस् 2Ā: sit             >  āsana आसन (n): seat, posture
          • √jan जन् 4Ā: be born    janman जन्मन् (n): birth
          • √tap तप् 10U: heat       >  tapas तपस् (n): austerity
          • √muc मुच् 6U: release  >  mukti मुक्ति (f): liberation
        • Stem + suffix:
          • kṣatra क्षत्र (n): might                  >  kṣatriya क्षत्रिय (mas): caste of warrior/protector.
          • puruṣa पुरुष (mas): man           >  pauruṣeya पौरुषेय (adj): human.
          • amṛta अमृत (adj): immortal      >  amṛtatva अमृतत्व (n): immortality.
          • anta अन्त (mas): end                  >  antaka अन्तक (mas): death
          • dharma धर्म (mas): virtue          dhārmika धार्मिक (adj): virtuous
          • ānanda आनन्द (mas): joy           >  ānandamaya आनन्दमय (adj): filled with joy
          • cit चित् (f): consciousness          >  cinmaya चिन्मय (adj): filled with consciousness.
          • priya प्रिय (adj): dear  >  priyatara प्रियतर (adj): dearer  >  priyatama प्रियतम (adj): dearest
    • Based on above examples, what have we noticed?
      1. Suffix is added end of root/stem.
      2. Different kind of suffixes.
      3. Suffix changes meaning of original word. But still highly related to original word.
    • Suffixes between page 245-250 in book have been presented visually and more clearly in: Fancy Grammar >  4. Suffixes.


  • What is it?
    • An adverb tells how a verb is done. EG: I am walking joyfully (adverb).
    • In Sanskrit, adverb is like an Indeclinable. Meaning don't decline it.
  • To avoid double writeup, read about Adverbs at: Fancy Grammar >  4. Suffixes > 2. SECONDARY SUFFIXES THAT FORM: ADVERBS

Desiderative:  (sannanta  सन्नन्त)

  • What is it?
    • Expresses desire/wish/want.
    • EG:  PRESENT: gacchati गच्छति  :  He goes  | DESIDERATIVE: jigamiṣati  जिगमिषति  : He desires/wants/wishes to go.
  • Examples:
English: Desiderative:
Sītā (desires to go) to the forest. sītā vanam jigamiṣati
सीता वनम् जिगमिषति
Rāma (wants to sing) to Sita. rāmaḥ sītām jisati
रामः सीताम् जिगासति
I (want to speak) to my friend. aham mama mitram vivadiṣāmi
अहम् मम मित्रम् विवदिषामि
You (desire to learn) Sanskrit. tvam saṃskṛtam pipaṭhiṣasi
त्वम् संस्कृतम् पिपठिषसि
Seeker (wants to cross) ocean of saṃsāra. jijñāsuḥ saṃsārasya samudram titīrṣati
जिज्ञासुः संसारस्य समुद्रम् तितीर्षति
    • Formula:
      • STEP 1:
        • Reduplication of root   +   √root   +   sa स / iṣa इष    +   P/Ā [ Garden PG4 (43-50) for all 10 verb classes
        • EG: √gam गम् 1P  >  jagamiṣati जिगमिषति  >  go to STEP 2 below…
      • STEP 2:
        • Find any of these vowels ( a अ,  ā आ,  ṛ ऋ,  ṝ ॠ,  i इ,  ī ई  ) in the reduplicated portion. And replace with: i इ
        • EG:  jagamiṣati  गमिषति  >  Replace  a   with  i इ.
          Therefore final word becomes: jigamiṣati  जिगमिषति : He desires to go.
    • Example:
      • √tyaj त्यज् 1P  >  Reduplication: tatyaj त्यज्   >  Apply Step 2: tityakṣati  तित्यक्षति   (j ज् changed to k क् due to sandhi)   >  He wants to abandon.
  • Can also form ADJECTIVE from Desiderative:
    • Replace stem's last  a अ  with  u उ   +  decline like [Garden PG2 (24-26)].    
    • EG:  √pā पा 1P     pisa  पिपास  : He wants to drink   >   pisu  (adj) : thirsty.
  • Can also form NOUN from Desiderative:
    • Replace stem's  a अ  with  ā आ   +  decline like Garden #2.   
    •     EG:
      • √man मन्  4Ā (to think)    >   māṃsa (long ī ई is irregularity)   >   māṃsā  मीमांसा (f) : desire to think; IE: analysis.
      • √jñā √ज्ञा 9P (to know)        jijñāsa       >    jijñāsā  जिज्ञासा (f)  :  desire to know; IE: curiosity.
      • √śak शक् 5P (be able)       >   śika          >   śikā  शिक्षा (f)        :  desire to be able; IE: learning.


  • STEP 1:
    • Study Suffixes on this page. For thorough understanding, see:  Fancy Grammar >  4. Suffixes
  • STEP 2:
    • Study Adverbs on this page.
  • STEP 3:
    • Study Desiderative on this page.
  • STEP 4:
  • STEP 5:
    • PG258: Learn new vocabulary. 
  • STEP 6:
    • PG241 & 256: Attempt to translate the verse.
      1. Break down sandhi.
      2. Write English definition top of each word.
      3. Translate.
  • STEP 7:
    • PG 259-262: Do the exercises.


You'll have more questions throughout the course. How to ask? Leave in comments below, so others can also benefit. We'll respond within 48 hours. Only ask specific to this Lesson.


Recorded 12 Feb, 2023


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