Lesson 72: Causative & ‘This' Pronoun


Causative is implied verb. And ayam/iyam/idam/ena are forms for word “this”.

Source: Introduction to Sanskrit (4th Ed) – Thomas Egenes – Part Two

Session deals with: VOL2, L29, PG 222-233

Causative:  (ṇij णिज्)

  • What is it? 
    • He causes ACCUSATIVE to ___“.
  • Purpose of Causative?
    • It allows verbs to be translated figuratively (implied meaning). Due to their less rigid nature, most texts prefer Causative Verbs, thus learn to love them and take this lesson seriously. Will see what is meant by figurative in table below — indicated by FIGURATIVE.
  • How to form?
    • Simplified:
      • Causative construction is 100% IDENTICAL to Class 10 Verbs. We're basically converting Class 1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8,9 to Class 10. That's all there is to it!
      • In fact, not a single Class 10 verb has Causative at sanskrit.inria.fr. Because Causative for Class 10 would be exactly the same as it's Normal Verbs. Meaning “cintayati चिन्तयति” can also mean, “He causes ACC to think“.
    • Formula:
      • strengthened√root  +  i इ (99% of time will appear as: aya अय or ay अय् +  P/Ā
        • Root is strengthened either to Guṇa or vṛddhi. No specific rule. Must memorize.
        • aya seen in:
          • Present (laṭ)
          • Imperfect (laṅ)
          • Imperative (loṭ)
          • Present Participle (vartamāne kṛdanta)
        • ay seen in:
          • Optative (liṅ)
          • Simple Future (lṛṭ)
          • Periphrastic Future (luṭ)
          • Future Participle (bhaviṣyatkāle kṛdanta)
          • Future Passive Participle / Gerundive
          • Infinitive (tumun)
          • Gerund (ktvā)
      • Examples:
        1. √gup गुप् 1P  > gopayati  गोपति   (guṇa)    : He causes ACC to go.  
        2. √tuṣ तुष् 4P   > toayati    तोषति  (guṇa)    : He causes ACC to be satisfied.
        3. √dhṛ धृ  1U   > dhārayati  धारति  (vṛddhi)  : He causes ACC to hold. 
      • Special Rules:
        • Some roots take p प् before aya अय / ay अय्.
        • EG:
          1. √ji    जि 1P     > payati    जाति   : He causes ACC to conquer.
          2. √jñā ज्ञा 9U    > jñāpayati  ज्ञाति    : He causes ACC to know.
          3. √dā  दा  3U   > payati    दाति   : He causes ACC to give.
  • Causative Sentence Examples: 
aya अय  before declension:  
Present (laṭ)√gam 1P
Rāma causes Sita to go.                        

FIGURATIVE: Rāma leads/nudges/guides/forces/sends Sita.

rāmaḥ sītām gamayati
रामः सीताम् गमयति
Present (laṭ)√gam 1P
Rāma causes Sita to go to the forest.
rāmaḥ sītyā vanam gamayati
रामः सीत्या वने गमयति                        

NOTICE: It's not sītām सीताम् (acc), but sītyā सीत्या (inst). Because instrumental is Causative's way of showing that “Rāma causes sītā to go, instead of “Rāma causes vanam to go. This rule is only applied when there's more then one object in the sentence.  Unfortunately not all texts follow this good rule, making it harder to figure out which ACCUSATIVE is object of causation.

Present (laṭ)√tyaj 1P
Krishna causes Arjuna to abandon attachment.
kṛṣnaḥ arjunena(inst) saṇgaṃ tyājayati
कृष्नः अर्जुनेन सण्गं त्याजयति
Present (laṭ)√bhū 1P
Men cause war in Kurukṣetra.                        

FIGURATIVE: Men instigate/impel/provoke/stir up war in Kurukṣetra.

narāḥ yuddham kurukṣetre bhāvayanti
नराः युद्धम् कुरुक्षेत्रे भावयन्ति
Present (laṭ)√man 4Ā
Old age causes us to think (about life).                        

FIGURATIVE: Old age makes us inquire about life.

jarā asmābhiḥ(inst, pl) (viṣayakam jīvitam) mānayati
जरा अस्माभिः (विषयकम् जीवितम्) मानयति                        

NOTE: Why asmābhiḥ, and not asmān? See 2nd example above.

Imperfect (laṅ)√gup 1P
War-skills caused men to be protected from death.                        

FIGURATIVE: War-skills saved men from death.

yuddhakauśalāḥ narān/naraiḥ maraṇāt(abl) agopayan
युद्धकौशलाः नरान्/नरैः मरणात्  (abl)  अगोपयन्                        

NOTE: In this case, can also use narān (acc, pl) as there's no other ACC in the sentence. 

Imperfect (laṅ)√gam 1P
He causes the boy to go there. / The boy is caused to go there.
bālam tatra agamayat
बालम्  तत्र अगमयत्
Imperative (loṭ)√yuj 7U
Krishna must cause Karna to unite with Pandavas!                        

FIGURATIVE: Krishna must persuade Karna to side with Pandavas!

kṛṣṇaḥ karṇam pāṇḍavaiḥ yojayatu
कृष्णः कर्णम्  पाण्डवैः योजयतु
Imperative (loṭ)√gam 1P
You MUST cause me to go (from untruth) to truth.
You MUST cause me to go (from darkness) to light.
You MUST cause me to go (from death) to immortality.
– Bṛhadāraṇyaka Upaniṣad 1.3.28                        

FIGURATIVE: Lead me (from untruth) to truth. etc…

asataḥ sat gamaya
tamasaḥ jyotiḥ gamaya
mṛtyoḥ amṛtam gamaya                         

असतः मा सत् गमय
तमसः मा ज्योतिः गमय
मृत्योः मा अमृतम् गमय

Imperative (loṭ):
You must cause elephant to bring (to be brought)  here, or cause him to lead (to be led) there.                        

FIGURATIVE: You must tempt/bring/lure the elephant here, or take him there.

tvam atra gajam ānāyaya, tatra vā tam nāyaya
त्वम् अत्र गजम् आनायय, तत्र वा तम् नायय
Present Participle (vartamāne kṛdanta)√bhū 1P
Ravana is causing Sita to become distressed.
rāvaṇaḥ sītayā duḥkhitām bhāvayan
रावणः सीतया दुःखिताम् भावयन्
Present Participle (vartamāne kṛdanta): √nī 1U
Going to the forest, Rāma causes brother to lead army.
vanam gacchan, rāmaḥ bhrātrā (inst) rājyam nāyayati
वनम् गच्छन्, रामः भ्रात्रा राज्यम् नाययति
ay अय्  before declension:  
Optative (liṅ)√tyaj 1P
Husband should not cause wife to abandon him.                        

FIGURATIVE: Husband shouldn't chase away wife!

patiḥ patnyā (inst) tam na tyājayet
पतिः पत्न्या तम् न त्याजयेत्
Simple Future (lṛṭ)√kṛ 8U
I will cause a house to be made.                        

FIGURATIVE: I will form / manifest / construct / build a house.

aham gṛham kārayiṣyāmi
अहम् गृहम् कारयिष्यामि
Simple Future (lṛṭ) √hṛṣ 1P
Manthara will cause Kaikeyī to lie.
mantharaḥ kaikeyīm harṣayiṣyati
मन्थरः कैकेयीम् हर्षयिष्यति
Periphrastic Future (luṭ)√kṣī 1P
Manthara will cause Kaikeyī to hurt Dasharatha.
mantharaḥ kaikeyyā (inst) daśaratham kṣapayitā
मन्थरः कैकेय्या  दशरथम् क्षपयिता
Gerund (ktvā):
Having caused Sita to go to the forest, Rāma hugs her.
sītayā vanam gamayitvā, rāmaḥ tām svajate
सीतया वनम् गमयित्वा, रामः ताम् स्वजते
Infinitive (tumun)√tyaj 1P
Dasharatha does not desire (to cause to discard Rama) from Ayodha.
daśarathaḥ ayodhāt (rāmam tyājayitum) na icchati
दशरथः अयोधात् (रामम् त्याजयितुम्) न इच्छति
Future Passive Participle / Gerundive:
Sick man is not to be caused to go (outside the house).                        

FIGURATIVE: Sick man is to be supervised in the house.

rugnanaraḥ (gṛhāt bahiḥ) na gamayitavya / gamya / gamanīya
रुग्ननरः (गृहात् बहिः) न गमयितव्य / गम्य / गमनीय
Present Passive (karmaṇi prayoga)√iṣ 6P
Sage caused truth to be desired by recitation of mantras.
muniḥ satyam mantrapāṭhanena eṣyate
मुनिः सत्यम्  मन्त्रपाठनेन एष्यते
Past Passive Participle (bhūte kṛdanta):
Army was caused to be gone by enemies.                        

FIGURATIVE: Army was eliminated by enemies.

senā śatrubhiḥ gamita
सेना शत्रुभिः गमित                        

CONSTRUCTION: PPP always formed with i . EG: gamita गमित, vādita वादित.

Word for ‘This': 

  • In English, word “this” is used for all genders. In Sanskrit, “this” has M/N/F and 3 different words for “this“.
  • Open Garden PG3, #40-42. Notice black/brown/blue words in each gender. It means there's 3 words for “this“. Most often used is black version (IE: ayam/iyam/idam  अयम्/इयम्/इदम्), thus stick with it.
  • Comparison:
    1. blue (ena एन) version:
      • Used least (may never see).
      • It can't be used before a noun. Can only be used by itself.
      • Can't use it as first word in sentence.
    2. black/brown version:
      • Can be used by themselves (EG: What is this? / etat kim एतत् किम् ?), or before a noun (EG: This woman / eṣā nārī एषा नारी).
      • Can be first word in sentence.
  • Sentence Examples:
(This man) went there. (ayam naraḥ) tatra agacchat
(अयम् नरः) तत्र अगच्छत्
(This Sita) is beautiful. (iyam sītā) sundarī asti
(इयम् सीता) सुन्दरी अस्ति
(With this nectar), I will live forever (in this universe). (anena amṛtena), aham nityaḥ (asmin jagati) vatsyāmi
(अनेन अमृतेन), अहम् नित्यः (अस्मिन् जगति) वत्स्यामि
All this is truly Brahman. – C.U 3.14.1
sarvam khalu idam brahma
सर्वम् खलु इदम् ब्रह्म


  • STEP 1:
    • Study Causative on this page. Go through each sentence example.
  • STEP 2:
  • STEP 3:
    • Learn the new irregular “u उ” paradigm in Garden PG2, #28. It's same to #27, except Single (ACC/ABL/GEN) & Plural (ACC, GEN).
  • STEP 4:
    • PG 212: Learn the Vocab.
  • STEP 5:
    • PG219: Attempt to translate the verse.
      1. Break down sandhi.
      2. Write English definition top of each word.
      3. Translate.
      4. Compare your translation to author's.
  • STEP 6:
    • PG 235-238: Do the exercises.


You'll have more questions throughout the course. How to ask? Leave in comments below, so others can also benefit. We'll respond within 48 hours. Only ask specific to this Lesson.


Recorded 21 Nov, 2022


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