Fancy Sanskrit Grammar Tables

sanskrit-grammar-tablePurpose of this page is to summarize, simplify, and even prettify the Sanskrit grammar into three tenses: past, present and future. It references or charts all forms of verbs and moods mentioned in Panini grammar — in layman terms. The most crucial points are listed. Also includes all possible compounds, prefixes and suffixes.

STORY: This work was originally for private use to get a quick birds-eye-view of any grammatical concept, with sentence examples. Released to public after 5 years for others to appreciate a logical, organized approach — as much as I do.

Updated: 3 May 2023 | By Acharya Andre

Legend & How to use

  • = root (dhātu).  Active = (P)arasmaipada.  Middle = (Ā)tmanepada.
  • “Formula:” shows how to construct the verb and what endings it takes.
  • “Garden PG4 (43)” means, go to Sanskrit Garden PG4, table 43.
  • Complimentary:  Sanskrit Online Tools (look under C & D)   |  Participles rules.

Name: PRESENT TENSE: Formula: English: Sanskrit:

Absolute

(Form of: Present Participle)

  • (NOM ACC VERB) (NOM ACC VERB). Two sets of action happening on LEFT & RIGHT side of sentence. EG: (While Rāma is hunting deer), (Sītā cooks food).
  • Construction is 100% identical to Present Participle, except it makes sentence start with: While/When/As/Even though…
  • RULE: The LEFT side of sentence (both the NOM & Present Participle verb) takes either LOC or GEN.
  • Can also be used with Past Participle.

LOC: P/Ā locative of Present Participle

GEN: P/Ā genitive of Present Participle.

If “api” after LOC/GEN Present Participle verb, then sentence starts with: “Even though/while…”

  1. LOC: (While/when/as Rāma is speaking), boy hears.
  2. LOC + ‘api‘: (Even though king is singing), boy doesn't hear him.
  3. api‘ can also be used without LOC/GEN:
    (Even though king is singing), boy doesn't hear him.
  4. LOC: (When Rama goes to forest), Sita goes.
  5. GEN: (While the king was speaking), the boy laughed.
  6. GEN: (While he looks), she goes.
  1. (rāmeloc bhāṣamāneloc) balaḥ śṛṇoti
  2. (rājñiloc gāyatiloc api) balaḥ tam na śṛṇoti
  3. (rājānom gāyannom api) balaḥ tam na śṛṇoti
  4. (rāmeloc vanam gacchatiloc) sītā gacchati
  5. (rājñaḥgen bhāṣamāṇasyagen) bālaḥ ahasat
  6. (tasyagen paśyataḥgen) sā gacchati
Benedictive / Precative
Sanskrit Names: āśīrliṅ / āśis
  • Expresses the SUBJECT'S wish, hope or blessing. English equivalent, May you be healthy. May I become successful. I do not see what would/may remove my sorrow”.
  • Used mainly for uttering blessings or prayers.
  • RARE.

P: √  +  yā    [Garden PG4 (59)]

A:  √  +  [Garden PG4 (60)]
  1. P: May Rāma be the king!
  2. P: May we remember the knowledge.
  3. Ā: May you perform the auspicious ritual today!
  1. rāmaḥ nṛpaḥ bhūyāt
  2. vidyām smaryāsma
  3. suyajñam adya kṛṣīṣṭhāḥ
Imperative
Sanskrit Names: loṭ / ājñā
  • COMMAND. Expresses: instruction, invitation, request, prayer and benediction.
  • 2nd person for casual. EG: You MUST (ought to)__! Leave now!
  • 3rd person for polite-ness. EG: Let/may the guru eat the fruit!  (Since it's impolite to say: Guru, eat the fruit!)
  • Used interchangeably with Optative.
  • Negated with .
  • Read more.
Present STEM + P/Ā [Garden PG4 (47, 48 / 55, 56)]
  1. (You) Listen, son!
  2. You must(ought to) go to the forest! / Go to the forest!
  3. POLITE: Let/may the guru eat the fruit!
  4. POLITE: May my friends be satisfied!
  1. he putravoc  śṛṇu
  2. tvam vanam gaccha
  3. guruḥ phalam khādatu
  4. mama mitrāni sukhitāni bhavantu
Infinitive
Sanskrit Names: tumun / tumananta
  • Shows purpose. EG: to eat, to learn
  • Sometimes replaces Dative.
  • Negated with na.
  • Read more.
Indeclinable.
guṇa+ tum / itum
  1. Rāma wants to go.
  2. Rāma does not desire to come from the forest.
  3. Passive: Book is able to be read (by the boy).
  1. rāmaḥ gantum icchati
  2. rāmaḥ vanāt āgantum na icchati
  3. bālena pustakam paṭhitum śakyate
Injunctive
  • It's a negative Imperative. Hence preceded with (not).
  • Constructed from Aorist's 7 forms.
  • Removed in Classical Sanskrit (same fate of Aorist) because too complex. Replaced by Imperative.
  • RARE.
P/Ā (10 Verb Classes): Identical to Aorist's various forms, but without initial “a“.
  1. Don't do that!
  2. Let Bharata not be the king! / Bharata must not be
  3. O Arjuna, you must not go to weakness!
  1. tat mā kārṣīt (√kṛ 8U)
  2. bharataḥ rājā mā bhūt (√bhū 1P)
  3. he arjuna, klaibyam mā gamaḥ
Optative / Potential
Sanskrit Names: liṅ / vidhi / vidhiliṅ
  • Expresses a WISH. Indicates either (A)Should/Had better”, or (B)Might/May/Would” perform the action.
  • Think of it as a gentle order (less forceful then Imperative), advice, expectation, suggestion.
  • Can be used interchangeably with Imperative, if using “should”.
  • Read more.
Class 1,4,6,10:
√  +  [Garden PG4 (49, 50)]

Non-1,4,6,10:
√  +  [Garden PG4 (57, 58)]
  1. Rāma should obtain Sītā!
  2. You should be a Pundit!
  3. He who wishes for peace should go to the forest.
  4. These boys might play in the pond!
  5. If mother should not come, then daughter might die. (LIT: might become dead)
  6. In that house, you (pl) may not find food.
  7. If Rāma should not return from the forest, then I would die!
  1. rāmaḥ sītam labheta
  2. paṇḍitam bhaveḥ
  3. yaḥ sāntim icchati, sa vanam caret
  4. bālāḥ vāpyām dīvyeyuḥ
  5. yadi mātā na āgacchet, tarhi kanyā mṛtā bhavet
  6. tasmin gṛhe, āhāram na labhedhvam
  7. yadi rāmaḥ vanāt na pratigacchet, tarhi aham mriyeya
Present Indicative
Sanskrit Names: laṭ / vartamānakālaḥ / vartamāna
  • Action is done now.
  • Adding “sma” turns it into Imperfect.

Construction for 10 verb classes found in [Garden PG5].

P/Ā endings: [Garden PG4 (43, 44 / 51, 52)]

  1. Man goes (is going / goes).
  2. Boy speaks (is speaking / speaks).
  3. Can use to make Imperfect: Boy spoke to his sister.
  4. Can indicate Present Indicative via Present Passive: The man/men runs. (LIT: It is run by the man/men.)
  1. naraḥ gacchati
  2. bālaḥ bhāṣate
  3. bālaḥ tasya svasāram vadati sma
  4. narena/naraiḥinst dhāvyate (always in Single)
Present Participle
Sanskrit Names: vartamāne kṛdanta
  • ing.  (EG: walking, speaking, doing)
  • (LEFT SIDE) (RIGHT SIDE). Used like Gerund; it's placed on LEFT side of sentence.
  • Acts like ADJ. Takes Gender/Num/Case(optional)  of the Subject or Noun which the Present Participle is referring to.
  • Read more (has many rules).

SIMPLIFIED:
P/Ā: √  +  [Garden PG7]

TECHNICAL:
P: √  +  at  +  [Garden (12, 31, 32)].

Ā: STEM + māna/āna + [Garden (1, 2)]

  1. (Going to the forest), Rāma sees a deer.
  2. (Seeing the deer), Sītā speaks to Rāma.
  3. (Speaking to Sīta), Rāma kisses her.
  4. Boy runs (from the falling house).
  5. Having seen Rama approaching, all stood up.
  6. Speaking, she walks.
  7. The (approaching Rāma) saw the (laughing sage).
  8. (Seeing the demons), the sages abandoned the awful forest.
  1. (vanam gacchan) rāmaḥ mṛgam paśyati
  2. (mṛgam paśyanī) sitā rāmam vadati
  3. (sītām bhāṣamānaḥ) rāmaḥ tām cumbati
  4. (patataḥn,abl gṛhatn,abl) bālaḥ dhāvati
  5. (rāmamacc āgacchantamacc dṛṣṭvā) sarve udatiṣṭhan
  6. bhāṣamānā carati
  7. (hasantam munim) (upagacchan rāmaḥ) apaśyat
  8. (rakṣasān paśyantaḥ) munayaḥ ghoravanam atyajan

Present Passive Participle

(Form of: Present Participle)

+ ya + māna(for all 10 verb classes) + [Garden (1, 2)]
  1. (Being led by Rāma), the army conquers the enemies.  (Who is being led? Army. Thus declines like “army“)
  2. (Being asked by Krishna), Radha speaks.
  3. (In the forest, being gone to (approached) by Rama), the sage was pleased to see him.
  4. (The statement being spoken by me), comes from experience.
  5. (The men being slain by the lion), cry for help.
  6. (Being struck by Rama), the demons ran far from the forest.
  1. (rāmeṇa nīyamānāsenā śatrūḥ jayati
  2. (kṛṣṇena pṛcchyamānārādhā vadati
  3. (rameṇa vaneloc gamyamāneloc) muniḥ tam draṣṭum tuṣṭaḥ  (In this eg, the Participle agrees with the Object.)
  4. (mayā vacanam bhāṣyamānam) kauśalāt āgacchat
  5. (siṃhena narān hanyamānān) upkārāya krośanti
  6. (rameṇa tudyamānāḥ) rakṣasāḥ vanāt dūram adhāvan
Present Passive
Sanskrit Names: karmaṇi prayoga / karmavācya / bhāvavācya
  • (is / are / are being)optional  –ed
  • EG: protected, is protected,  are desired,  are being desired.
  • ADJ. Same case/gender/num as noun it's referring to.
  • The OBJECT is in NOM. The SUBJECT in other cases.
  • Family: Imperfect Passive, Future Passive.
  • Read more | More examples: 1, 2.
+ ya + Ā [Garden PG4 (44 / 52)]
  1. Book  (is / is being) read  by the boy.
  2. Scriptures (are / are being) heard by steady minds.
  3. Anger (is) called enemy of the wise.
  4. Bliss attained by yogis, should be obtained by all.
  5. I am desired passionatelyadv by my wife.
  6. Tree is walked (to) by Rāma.
  1. pustakamnom  bālena  paṭhyate
  2. śrutiḥ niścalamanobhiḥ śrūyate
  3. krodhaḥ manīṣinśatruḥ ucyate
  4. ānandaḥ yogibhiḥ prāpyate, sarvaiḥ āpanīyaḥ
  5. aham mama bhāryayā mandanena iṣye
  6. vṛkṣaḥ rāmena caryate
Name: PAST TENSE: Formula: English: Sanskrit:
Aorist
Sanskrit Names: luṅ / sāmānyā bhutakālaḥ / bhūta

7 Ways to Construct

Simple:

  • Form 1:
    » P only:+  √  +   P [Garden PG4 (53)for all 10 verb classes]

  • Form 2:
    » P: √  +  P [Garden PG4 (45)for all 10 verb classes]
    » Ā:+  √  +  Ā [Garden PG4 (46)for all 10 verb classes] * irregularities: Some take endings of Garden 54.

Reduplication:

  • Form 3:
    » P:
    a + Reduplication (with extra Aorist rules)  +  √  +  P [Garden PG4 (45)for all 10 verb classes]
    » Ā: a + Reduplication (with extra Aorist rules)  +  √  +  Ā [Garden PG4 (46)for all 10 verb classes]

Sibilant:

  • Form 4 (sa): 
    »
    Rules: [1] Only applies to roots that end in: ś / / h. [2] No root strengthening. [3] Due to sandhi, last ś in root will change to kṣ.  EG: √spṛś > spṛkṣ.

    » P: √  +  P [Garden PG4 (45)for all 10 verb classes]
    » Ā: +  √  +  Ā [Garden PG4 (46)for all 10 verb classes]  * Irregularities: Some take endings of Garden 54.

  • Form 5 (siṣ): 
    »
    Applies (mostly) to roots ending in , and following roots: √nam 1P (worship), √yam 1P (support), √ram 1Ā (enjoy).

    » P Only: a  +  vṛddhi√  +  siṣ +  P [Garden PG4 (53)for all 10 verb classes]

  • Form 6 (s):
    » Rules: [1] Due to sandhi, s will change into . [2] Medial vowel in root, doesn't take guṇa in Ā.
    » P:
    a  +  vṛddhi√  +  s  +  P [Garden PG4 (53)for all 10 verb classes] 

    » Ā: a  +  guṇa√  +  s  +  Ā [Garden PG4 (54)for all 10 verb classes]  * Irregularity: Plural, 2nd Person doesn't have: s.

  • Form 7 (iṣ):
    » Rules: [1]
    Medial vowel in root, is made guṇa in both P/Ā. However medial -a is unchanged.
    » P: a  +  vṛddhi√  +  iṣ  +  P [Garden PG4 (53)for all 10 verb classes] *3 irregularities
    » Ā: a  +  guṇa√   +  iṣ  +  Ā [Garden PG4 (54)for all 10 verb classes]  * Irregularity: Plural, 2nd Person doesn't have:  .

Passive:

  • Aorist > Passive Single > 3rd Person:
    » This is a common form you need to recognize.
    » Formula: 
    +  √  +  i

    » Rules: [1] Medial vowel in root takes guṇa. EG: √muc 6P > amoci : He was released.  [2] Final vowel in root takes vṛddhi. EG: √k 8U > akāri : He was made.

◄ For efficiency, formula is on left side.

  1. Form 1: Rāma went to the deer. 
  2. Form 2: Guru released me from bondage.
  3. Form 3: Sītā went to the house. 
  4. Form 4: Rāma touched Sītā gently.
  5. Form 5: We went to meet the guru. 
  6. Form 6: The armies led the soldiers into battle.
  7. Form 7: Our ignorance covered our discernment. 
  1. rāmaḥ mṛgram agamat
  2. guruḥ bandhāt mām amucata
  3. sītā gṛham agamat
  4. rāmaḥ sītām sadayena aspṛkṣat
  5. vayam gurum militum ayāsiṣma (√yā 2P: go)
  6. senāḥ yuddhe sainikān anaiuḥ  (√nī 1U: lead)
  7. askmākam avidyā svavivekam avariṣṭa (√vṛ 1U: cover)
Conditional
Sanskrit Names: lṛṅ / ḷṅ / saṅketa / saṃketa
  • Indicates: would have
  • Rarely used.
  • Read more.
a + simple future + imperfect endings [Garden PG4 (45, 46 / 53, 54)]
  1. Rāma would have gone to forest without Lakshman.
  2. Rāma would have been the king.
  3. Had the boy not stolen the thing, his mother would not have punished him. (LIT: Would have not the boy stolen the thing…)
  4. If men would have come, then I would have been killed.
  5. If they would have come by a good road, the cart would have not fallen.
  1. rāmaḥ lakṣmaṇā vinā vanam agamiṣyat
  2. rāmaḥ rājānam abhaviṣyat
  3. bālaḥ viṣayam na acorayiṣyat, tasya mātā tam na atarjiṣyat
  4. yadi narāḥ agamiṣyan tadā hataḥ abhaviṣyam
  5. sumārgeṇ ced āyāsyan, śakaṭam na apatiṣyat

Gerund / Absolutive / Indeclinable
Past Participle

Sanskrit Names: ktvā / tvānta / ktvānta / lyabanta / lyap

  • Indicates prior COMPLETED action. Having seen __  / After seeing __.
  • ACC comes before it.
  • Read more.

Indeclinable.
+ tvā
If prefix, then: √ + ya / yā(fem)

  1. Having abandoned(After abandoning) the fire.
  2. PREFIX: Having obtained wisdom, I teach.
  1. agnimacc  hitvā
  2. manīṣām prāpya(pra + √āp 5P + ya), upadiśāmi
Imperfect
Sanskrit Names: laṅ / anadyatana bhūta
  • Event happened in the past.
  • Used interchangeably with: Perfect, Present Indicative sma, Past Participle.
  • Read more.

a  +  √  P/Ā [Garden PG4 (45, 46 / 53, 54)]

  1. The boy read the book.
  1. bālaḥ pustakam apaṭhat
Imperfect Passive / Past Passive
  • was/were -ed.
  • Use interchangeably with Past Passive Participle.
  • Family: Present Passive, Future Passive.   

a ++ ya + imperfect Ā [Garden PG4 (46)for all 10 verb classes]

  1. Book was read.
  2. Bhima & Arjuna were seen by Kunti.
  3. The stories were heard by the girls.
  4. Only INST + Imperfect Passive: The flower/flowers was/were grown. (LIT: It was grown by the flower/flowers.) 
  1. pustakam a(paṭh)(ya)ta
  2. bhīmaḥ arjunaḥ ca kuntyā adṛṣyetām
  3. kathāḥ kanyābhiḥ aśrūyanta
  4. puṣpeṇa/puṣpaiḥinst  avardhata (always in Single)
Past Participle
(Active)
Sanskrit Names: ktavatu
  • Past tense. Basically used like Imperfect, but with extra features.
  • Can be used as: [1] VERB: Declines like the Subject of sentence (just like in Present/Future participle), [2] ADJ: Describes someone/thing, [3] NOUN: Stands on it's own (EG: He who conquered.)
  • Negate with a / an.
  • Related to “tavat” suffix.
  • Used interchangeably with: Imperfect, Perfect, Present Indicative sma.
  • Read more.

PPP  +  (mas, n): vat/vant  /  (fem): vatī  + decline like [Garden PG3 (31, 32)]

VERB:

  1. Rāma went to the forest.
  2. Sītā came from the river.
  3. Negation: Sītā hasn't come from the river.
  4. Scriptures conquered ignorance.

ADJ:

  1. Rāma is one who has abandoned everything.
  2. I saw (the man who ate the fruits).
  3. The king spoke (to the man who remembered his mother).

VERB:

  1. rāmaḥmas  vanam  gatavānmas
  2. sītāfem  nadyāḥ  āgatavatīfem
  3. sītāfem nadyāḥ anāgatavatīfem
  4. śāstrānin  avidyām  jitavantin

ADJ:

  1. rāmaḥ sarvam tyaktavān asti
  2. (phalāni khāditavantam naram) aham apaśyam
  3. (tasya mātaram smṛtavantam naram) nṛpaḥ avadat
Past Passive Participle (PPP) 
Sanskrit Names: bhūte kṛdanta
  • (was/were |  has/have been)optional  -ed, -en.
  • EG: was protected, were protected,  have been desired,  has spoken.
  • ADJ. Same case/gender/num as noun it's referring to.
  • The OBJECT is in NOM. The SUBJECT in other cases (mostly INST).
  • Negate with a / an.
  • Read more.

+ -ta -ita -īta -na + [Garden PG1 (1, 2)]

  1. VERB:  Book (was/is) read                by the boy.
  2. VERB:  Daughter (was/is)  desired  by the poet.
  3. ADJ:  Established intellect.
  4. COMPOUND:  Desired fruit.
  5. COMPOUND: Kauravas saw dead bodies.
  6. VERB: Enemy (was) hated  by the people.
  7. Trees (were) seen                by Arjuna.
  8. Sound (has been) heard     by the lady.
  1. pustakam bālena paṭhitam
  2. putrikā kavinā iṣṭā
  3. sthitā prajñā
  4. iṣṭaphalam
  5. kauravāḥ mṛtadehān apaśyan
  6. śatruḥ manuṣyaiḥ dviṣṭaḥ
  7. vṛkṣāḥ arjunena     dṛṣṭaḥ
  8. śabdaḥ nāryā          śrutaḥ
Perfect
Sanskrit Names: liṭ / parokṣa bhūta
  • Same as Imperfect, but not witnessed by the speaker.
  • In practice, used interchangeably with Imperfect.
  • Has additional reduplication & P/Ā rules.
  • Read more.

redup√  +  [ (P: Single = apply guṇa to root | Dual/Pl = leave root alone)   (Ā: S/D/P = leave root alone) ]  +  (potential ‘ i ‘)  +  [Garden PG4 (61, 62)]

  1. Sage spoke to Rāma.
  2. I was there.
  3. She pushed the boy.
  1. muniḥ rāmam uvāca/ūce
  2. aham tatra āsa
  3. sā bālam tutoda
Name: FUTURE TENSE: Formula: English: Sanskrit:
Future Passive
Participle (FPP) / Gerundive
  • Like PPP, can act as verb, adj, noun. In all cases, it declines same as the word it qualifies.
  • See it as COMMAND/FIRM SUGGESTION. Meaning, can also be used like an Imperative.
  • Indicates what will  / must / ought to be done in future.
  • “It is to be __ed”.  EG: It is to be obtained, desired!
  • If FPP is not referring to any NOM, then decline FPP in NEUTER (NOM, SING). See EG on right >>>
  • Read more.
guṇa (rarely vṛddhi)√  -anīya -tavya -ya  [Garden PG1 (1, 2)]
  1. Book is to be(will/must/ought to/should be) read  by the boy.
    (OR if using like Imperative)
    Let the book be read  by the boy!
  2. Rāma is to be united with Sīta.
  3. Elephants (which) should not be heard, are heard by the boys.
  4. NO NOM: It is to be protected by me.
  1. pustakamnom  bālena saha  pāṭhanīyam / paṭhitavyam / pāṭhyam
  2. rāmaḥ sītayā yojanīyaḥ / yoktavyaḥ / yogya
  3. hastinaḥnom,pl na śrotavyāḥ bālaiḥ śrūyantepassive
  4. mayā goptavyamNeuter, Sing, Nom
Future Participle
(Active & Middle)
Sanskrit Names: bhaviṣyatkāle kṛdanta
  • will be VERBing.
  • 2 ways to use:
    • FORM 1: Simple NOM ACC VERB.
    • FORM 2: (Left side) (Right side) sentence.
  • Read more.

Simple Future STEM + [Garden PG7]for all 10 verb classes

(Ignore the orange endings, as only applies to Present Participles)

FORM 1:

  1. Rāma will be going to Sītā.
  2. Devotee will be serving the guru.
  3. Sītā will be staying in Ayodha.
  4. They will be writing a Sanskrit story for the teacher.
  5. I will be coming to meet you tomorrow.
  6. Sītā will be fetching water from the river.
  7. Rāma will be seeing Sīta to speak about food.

FORM 2:

  1. (I speak) (to the man that will-be-going). 
    Literal: (I am speaking) (to the will-be-going-man).
  2. (We are seeing) (clouds that will be vanishing in the sky). 
    Literal: (We see) (the will-be-vanishing-clouds in the sky).
  3. (I give money) (for the woman that will be coming from the village).   
    Literal: (I give money) (for the will-be-coming-from-village woman).

FORM 1:

  1. rāmaḥ sītām gamiṣyan
  2. bhaktaḥ gurum seviṣyamānaḥ
  3. sītā ayodhe sthāsyantī
  4. te adyāpakāya saṃskṛtakathām likhiṣyantaḥ
  5. aham tvām militum āgamiṣyamāṇaḥ śvaḥ
  6. sītā nadyāḥ jalam prāpsyantī   (pra + √āp 5P)
  7. rāmaḥ bhojanam vaditum sītām drakṣyan

FORM 2:

  1. (gamiṣyamāṇam naram) (aham vadati)
  2. (ākāśe mlaiṣyataḥacc,pl ghanānacc,pl)  (vayam paśyāmaḥ)
  3. (grāmāt āgamiṣyantyaidat nāryaidat)  (aham dhanam yacchāmi)
Future Passive
  • Same concept as Present Passive, except: will be ___en.
  • Family: Present Passive, Imperfect Passive
guṇa√  +  -sya -iṣya + [Garden PG4 (44)for all 10 verb classes]
  1. Bird will be eaten by the snake.
  2. Houses will be made by men.
  3. Rāma and Sīta will be seen in the forest.
  4. Only INST + Future Passive: The horse/horses will eat. (LIT: It will be eaten by the horse/horses.) 
  1. khagaḥ sarpeṇa khād(iṣya)te
  2. gṛhāni naraiḥ kariṣyante
  3. rāmaḥ sītā ca vane drakṣyete
  4. aśvena/aśvaiḥinst  khādiṣyata (always in Single)
Periphrastic Future / Distant Future
Sanskrit Names: luṭ / anadyatana bhaviṣyat
  • Stating event in future (mostly tomorrow and after).
  • Rare.
  • Read more.
guṇa+ -tā -itā + [Garden PG4 (63)for all 10 verb classes]
  1. I will learn morality.
  2. He will do meditation in the room.
  1. aham dharmam paṭhitāsmi
  2. sa prakoṣṭhe dhyānam kartā
Simple Future
Sanskrit Names: lṛṭ / ḷṭ /  sāmānyā bhaviṣyan / bhaviṣyat
  • Stating event in future. More common then Periphrastic Future.
  • Used interchangeably with Periphrastic future.
  • Read more.

guṇa+ -sya -iṣya + P/Ā [Garden PG4 (43, 44)for all 10 verb classes]

  1. I will read the book. / I am going to read the book.
  1. pustakamacc paṭhiṣyāmi

 

Type: VERB FORMATIONS:
Formula: English: Sanskrit:
Primary Verbs:
Normal
Sanskrit Names: apratyayānta
  • Everything as per above table.
     
Secondary Verbs:
Causative
Sanskrit Names: ṇijanta / ṇij / preraṇārthaka
  • He causes ACC to ___.
  • If more then two ACC in sentence, the caused ACC takes INST. EG: Rama causes Sita (inst) to go to forest (acc).
  • 2 Signs to Identify: [1] 2nd/3rd letter might be long. [2] aya / ay before declension. EG: kārayat, gamayet.
  • Construction is 100% identical to Class 10 Verbs.
  • Purpose: allows verbs to be translated figuratively (implied meaning).
  • Read more.

strenghtened√  +  i (appears as either: aya / ay)  +  P/Ā

aya seen in: Present / Imperfect / Imperative / Present Participle

ay seen in: Optative / Simple Future / Periphrastic Future / Future Participle / Future Passive Participle / Infinitive / Gerund

* Some roots take ‘p‘ before aya/ay. EG: √jñā > jñāpayati

  1. Mother causes boy to go
  2. Rāma causes Sītā to go to the forest.  FIGURATIVE: Rāma leads/nudges/guides/persuades Sītā to go the forest.
  3. Imperfect: Skills caused men to be protected from death.
  4. Imperative: Krishna must cause Karna to unite with Pandavas!
  5. Present Participle: Rāvaṇa is causing Sītā to become distressed.
  6. Optative: Husband should not cause wife to abandon him.
  7. Simple Future: Manthara will cause Kaikeyī to lie.
  8. Gerund: Having caused Sītā to go to the forest, Rāma hugs her.
  9. Infinitive: Dasharatha does not desire (to cause to discard Rāma) from Ayodha.
  10. Future Passive Participle: This man is not to be caused to go outside
  11. Present Passive: Sage caused truth to be desired in students.
  12. PPP: Army was caused to be gone by enemies.  FIGURATIVE: Army was eliminated by enemies.
  1. mātā  bālam gamayati
  2. rāmaḥ sītyāinst vanam gamayati
  3. kauśalāḥ narān maraṇāt agopayan
  4. kṛṣṇaḥ karṇam pāṇḍavaiḥ yojayatu
  5. rāvaṇaḥ sītayā duḥkhitām bhāvayan
  6. patiḥ patnyā tam na tyājayet
  7. mantharaḥ kaikeyīm harṣayiṣyati
  8. sītayā vanam gamayitvā, rāmaḥ tām svajate
  9. daśarathaḥ ayodhāt (rāmam tyājayitum) na icchati
  10. ayam naraḥ bahim na gamayitavya
  11. muniḥ satyam śiṣyeṣu eṣyate
  12. senā śatrubhiḥ gamita
Desiderative
Sanskrit Names: sannanta / san
  • Subject desires/wishes/wants to do the VERB.
  • Can create ADJ. Replace STEM'S last a with u  +  decline like [Garden PG2 (24-26)]. 
  • Can create FEM NOUN. Replace STEM'S last a with ā  +  decline like Garden #2
  • Read more.
Reduplication [Replace: a ā ṛ ṝ i ī > i]  +  √  +  sa/iṣa  +  P/Ā [Garden PG4 (43-50)for all 10 verb classes]
  1. Sītā (desires to go) to the forest.
  2. Rāma (wants to sing) to Sita.
  3. ADJ: Eager to fight Rāma (wants to conquer) the army.
  4. NOUN: I (desire to do) analysis on self.
  1. sītā vanam jigamiṣati
  2. rāmaḥ sītām jigāsati
  3. yuyutsu rāmaḥ senām jigīṣati
  4. aham ātmani mīmāṃsām cikīrṣāmi
Intensive / Frequentative
Sanskrit Names: yaṅanta / kriyātipattau lṛṅ
  • Verb & Adverb COMBINED in a single verb. EG: Rāma shines strongly :  rāma jājvalati
  • English equivalent: “What the hell is going on here? / I am bloody well going to do it”. In English, Intensive is an adverb (hell, bloody, etc). In Sanskrit, Intensive is the actual verb.
  • Intensive has 3 ways of showing intensity: “He/she goes [1] strongly (INTENSITY[2] repeatedly (FREQUENCY[3] crookedly (WITH DIFFICULTY)”. 
    • Context tells which one it is.
  • Rare (mostly found in Vedic Sanskrit).
  • Read more.

Construction has 2 forms:

Form 1: Always take Parasmaipada. Has 2 styles.

  • Form 1, Style 1: Reduplication (apply guṇa to vowel)  +  apply guṇa to √root  +  P
  • Form 1, Style 2: Reduplication (apply guṇa to vowel)  +  √root  +   ī  +   P

Form 2: Always takes Ātmanepada.

  • Reduplication (apply guṇa to vowel)  +  √root  +   ya   +   Ā
  1. DIFFICULTY: Rāma cuts the cake badly
  2. DIFFICULTY: Man walks crookedly to doctor.
  3. FREQUENCY: Sītā dances repeatedly for Rāma.
  4. INTENSITY: Rāmā strongly leads the army.
  1. rāmaḥ modakam lolupyate
  2. naraḥ vaidyam jaṅgamyate
  3. sītā rāmāya narīnṛtyate
  4. rāmaḥ senām nenīyate
Denominative
Sanskrit Names: nāmadhātu / nāmadhatavaḥ
  • A noun converted into a verb.  English eg: He hands the cup to me. The sky blackens. Ravana's wisdom didn't blossom.
  • Verb can indicate: He/she/it [1] becomes the noun, [2] acts or behaves like/be similar to the noun, [3] desires the noun, [4] performs/does/produces the noun, [5] regards/treats as the noun, [6] makes into the noun.
  • Final vowel of noun may be adjusted (usual to ī) or  lengthened. EG: putra (son) > putrīyati  (He desires a son).  |  gopa (cow protector) > gopāyati  (He protects)
  • NOTE: In Classical Sanskrit, ANY noun can join any form of √kṛ 8U or √bhū 1P. The noun may have small changes, especially in last letter.
    1. NOUN + √bhū 1P = He becomes like a NOUN / He becomes NOUN. EG: stambha + bhavati = stambhībhavati: He becomes like a post.
    2. NOUN + √kṛ 8U = He makes NOUN. EG: surabhi + karoti = surabhīkaroti: He makes fragrant.
  • Read more.

NOUN STEM  +  ya  +  P/Ā [Garden PG4 (43-50)]

  • BECOMES:
    1. The sky blackens(LIT: The sky becomes black.) 
  • ACTS LIKE / BE SIMILAR TO:
    1. Rāma acts like a king to his father.
    2. Kṛṣṇa acts like the Lord.
    3. Rāma protects the good.  (LIT: Rāma behaves like a cow protector.)
  • DESIRES/WISHES:
    1. Rāma wishes a son.
    2. Woman wishes a poet / king.
    3. Employee desires a salary.
  • PERFORMS/DOES/PRODUCES:
    1. Devotee performs homeage to Rāma.
    2. I perform austerity.
    3. They are taking long time/delaying to arrive.  (LIT: They are performing/doing long time for arrival.)
  • REGARDS/TREATS:
    1. Guru regards/treats student as a son.
  • MAKES INTO:
    1. He makes the work easier.
  • BECOMES:
    1. ākāśaḥ kṛṣṇāyate (kṛṣṇa: black)
  • ACTS LIKE / BE SIMILAR TO:
    1. rāmaḥ tasya pitaram rājāyate  (rājan: king)
    2. kṛṣṇaḥ kṛṣṇāyate  (kṛṣṇa: Lord)
    3. rāmaḥ sādhum gopāyati  (gopa: cow protector)
  • DESIRES/WISHES:
    1. rāmaḥ putrīyati
    2. nārī kavīyati / rājīyati
    3. karmakaraḥ vetanīyati
  • PERFORMS/DOES/PRODUCES:
    1. bhaktaḥ rāmāya namasyati  (namas: homeage)
    2. aham tapasmi  (tapas: austerity)
    3. te āgamanāya cirayati  (cira: long time)
  • REGARDS/TREATS:
    1. guruḥ śiṣyam putrīyati  (Without denominative: guruḥ śiṣyam putram iva ācarati)
  • MAKES INTO:
    1. sa kāryam laghayati (laghu: easy)
  COMPOUNDS: (samāsa)
English: Sanskrit:
General
Info
  • All members are in stem form. Except last member is declined.
    EG: śuklanaram/ena/āya
  • For all 4 types, only last member declines.
    EG:  Member1STEM  Member2STEMdeclension

6 RULES:

  • RULE 1:  (only applies to KD > ADJ + NOUN)
    • If 1st member FEM stem ends in: āī — then make it end in: a
  • RULE 2:
    • If Member1STEM ends in -an (EG: rājan), it loses last n.
    • If Member2STEM ends in -an, then ALWAYS takes [Garden 1] endings. 
      EG:  ātmanrājā  >  ātmarājaḥ
  • RULE 3:  (only applies to CASE-TP > PRONOUN + NOUN)
    • Treat pronoun's last d  as  t.
  • RULE 4:
    • If Member1STEM ends in ‘‘, then end it in: ā.
      EG: māt + pitṛ = mātpitarau  mātāpitarau  Mother and father.
  • RULE 5:
    • If __s s__, then change first s to
    • EG: tamassthita  =  tamasthita   Established in darkness.
  • RULE 6:  (only applies to Upapada)   Verb root may…
    1. Lose last letter.
    2. Change long to short vowel (ā > a).
      • EG: yoga + √sthā = yogastha
    3. Add ‘t‘  (Declines like [Garden 23]).   EG:
      • indra √ji  indrajit 
        (conqueror of Indra)
      • brahma √vid  brahmavit 
        (knower of brahman)
      • tarati śokam ātmavit   (The knower of the Self overcomes sorrow.) – C.U. 7.1.3

 

 

1. dvandva

All members important. 

2 types.

  • General:
    • 2 members: Last member declines in dual. 
    • 3+ members: Last member declines in plural.
  • 2 Categories.
  • CATEGORY 1: itaretara:
    • X and Y“.
    • How to know if it's saying “Men, sons and sages / Man, son and sage”? Context tells.
  • CATEGORY 2: samāhāra:
    • Used mostly for opposites (EG: hot/cold).
    • Can also use like itaretara. 1
    • Always NEUTER, SINGLE. 2
      • Choose closest paradigm for Member2.   EG: If nadī, then choose closest NEUTER paradigm that ends in ī. Since there isn't one, resort to short ‘i‘  (Garden 11).

CATEGORY 1:

  1. Sītā and Rāma go.
  2. Man, son and sage.
  3. Self and king

CATEGORY 2:

  1. Happiness and suffering.
  2. Of action and of inaction.
  3. With the horse, elephant and army. 1

 

  1. sītā rāmaḥ ca gacchataḥ sītārāmau gacchataḥ
  2. naraḥ putraḥ muniḥ ca > naraputramunayaḥ
  3. ātmā rājā ca  >  ātmanrājau  RULE 2

 

  1. sukham duḥkham ca > sukhaduḥkham
  2. karmaṇaḥ akarmaṇaḥ ca  > karmākarmasya
  3. aśvena gajena senayā ca > aśvagajasenena 2

2. tatpuruṣa (TP)

Last member more important. Meaning, if first member was missing, sentence would still makes sense.

8 types.

1) Vyadhikaraṇa-tatpuruṣa (Case-tp):    (Son of Rāma: rāmaputraḥ)

  • 2 Categories.
  • CATEGORY 1:  (a) Case-tp: Whatever the case of the FIRST member, is the name of the compound. (b) Case-tp-ppp (past passive participle).
    • Examples for Context:
      • INST-tp:
        1. SANSKRIT: śarahata: Killed by an arrow | devadatta: Given by God | jalapūrna: Filled by water.
        2. ENGLISH: Trainride (ride by a train) | Swordfight (fight by a sword) | Manmade (made by man).
      • DAT-tp:
        1. SANSKRIT: phalagata: Come for fruit | kapijalam: Water for monkeys.
        2. ENGLISH: Firewood (wood for fire) | Teaspoon (spoon for tea) | Handtowel (towel for hand).
      • ABL-tp:
        1. SANSKRIT: siṃhabhayam: Fear from lions | vanapuṣpam: Flower from the forest | svargapatita: Fallen from heaven.
        2. ENGLISH: Orangejuice (juice from orange) | Sunlight (light from sun) | Airtight (tight from air).
      • GEN-tp:
        1. SANSKRIT: rāmadūtaḥ: Messanger of Rāma | rājaputraḥ: Son of the king (prince).
        2. ENGLISH: Doorbell (bell of door) | Seashore (shore of the sea) | Birthday (day of birth) | Necklace (lace of the neck)
      • LOC-tp:
        1. SANSKRIT: jalacaraḥ: Mover in the water (fish) | yuddhasamartha: Capable in battle.
        2. ENGLISH: Earring (ring of ear) | Homework (work of home) | Wristwatch (watch of the wrist).
  • CATEGORY 2: Pronoun + Noun: Apply Rule 3.

CATEGORY 1:

  1. acc-tp: Townacc goneppp   (Gone to town).
  2. acc-tp: Sītā speaks to the soldier in the army.
  3. inst-tp: Seenppp by the teacher.
  4. dat-tp: Room for meditation.
  5. abl-tp: Fallenppp from heaven.
  6. gen-tp: Messenger of Rāma.
  7. loc-tp:  I see a boy at the bank of the river.

 CATEGORY 2: PRONOUN + NOUN: RULE 3

  1. My boy.
  2. Your girl.
  3. My mom.
  4. His man.

 

  1. nagaragata (adj)
  2. sītā senāsainikam lapati
  3. gurudṛṣṭa (adj)
  4. dhyānaśālā
  5. svargapatita (adj)
  6. rāmadūtaḥ
  7. nadītaṭe bālam paśyāmi

 

  1. mama bālaḥ    >  madbālaḥ
  2. tava kanyā     >  tvatkanyā
  3. mad + mātā    >  manmātā     (t + m = n)
  4. tadpuruṣaḥ  tatpuruṣaḥ  (t + p = t)

2) Karmadhāraya (kd):   (White garland: śuklamālā)

  • 2 Categories.
  • CATEGORY 1: ADJ + Noun: First member DESCRIBES last member.
    • ENGLISH EG: Madman, Blackbird, Girlfriend.
  • CATEGORY 2: Noun + Noun/PPP: EG: Silkworm, Football, Seahorse.

CATEGORY 1: ADJ + NOUN:

  1. White garland.
  2. Virtuous army.
  3. Beautiful little cow.
  4. By the poor person.

CATEGORY 2:  NOUN + NOUN/PPP:

  1. Earth hole.
  2. I rest (by the riverbank).
  3. Welldone.

 

  1. śuklā (mf[ā]n) mālā   >   śuklamālā   RULE 1
  2. dharmikī (mf[ī]n) senā dharmikasenā  RULE 1
  3. sundarī alpā dhenuḥ sundarālpadhenuḥ
  4. daridrajanena

 

  1. bhūmiḥ bilam >  bhūmibilam
  2. nadītaṭena śraye
  3. sukṛta (PPP)

3) Upapada (tpu):   (Standing in purity: sattvasthaḥ)

    • ADJ.
    • Subject to Rule 6.
    • FORMULA: Member1 + √root + (Garden #1-2).
    • EG: sattva + √sthā = sattvastha | śāstra + √jña = śāstrajña
  1. Man established in purity.
  2. Woman standing in purity.
  3. Kṛṣṇa and Rāma are knowers of the scriptures.
  4. Men are born of attachment to objects.
  5. Knower of Brahman.
  1. sattvasthaḥ naraḥ
  2. sattvasthā nārī
  3. kṛṣnarāmau śāstrajñau staḥ
  4. janāḥ viṣayasaṅgajāḥ santi (viṣayāḥ + saṅgasya + √jan)
  5. brahmavit  (brahma + √vidRULE 6

4) Nañ / Samāsana:   (dharma / adharma)

    • Turns noun into antonym/negative/opposite. Can't apply to verbs.
    • Add ‘a‘ prefix to: Adj, Nouns, Gerunds. Use ‘an‘ when joining to vowels (EG: uncomfortable, unending).
  1. NOUN: Knowledge / ignorance.
  2. NOUN: Self / not-self.
  3. GERUND: Having come / having not come.
  4. COMPOUND: Action / non-action.
  1. vidyā / avidyā
  2. ātmā / anātmā
  3. gatvā / agatvā
  4. karma akarma > karmākarma

5) Prādi:

    • Prefix (Pāṇini's 20 major prefixes: ati, adhi, anu, apa, api, abhi, ava, ā, ud, upa, dus, ni, nis, parā, pari, pra, prati, vi, sam, su)  +  noun.
    • Used as Adj/Noun.
  1. After sound.
  1. anu + svāra = anusvāra

6) Gati:

    • Prefix (any indeclinable word; not limited to 20 prefixes like in Prādi)  +  noun.
    • Used as Adj/Noun.
  1. Inner ruler (soul)
  1. antar + yāmin = antaryāmin

7) Upamāna:   (Dear like a friend: mitrapriya)

    • Produces a comparison / simile. Member2 like Member1.
    • Noun + Adj.
    • ENGLISH EG: Lifelong (long like life) | Icecold (cold like ice) | Skindeep (deep like skin).
  1. Skyblue (Blue like the sky).
  2. Frienddear (Dear like a friend).
  3. Moonface (Moonlike face) (Face like the moon).
  1. gagananīla (adj)
  2. mitrapriya (adj)
  3. candramukhaḥ   (adj)

8) Dvigu:   (Bicycle: dvicakrikā)

    • Number + Noun. Always end in Neuter, Singular.
    • ENGLISH EG: Bicycle, Triangle.
  1. Three worlds.
  2. Three guṇās.
  3. The four ages.
  1. trilokam
  2. traiguṇya
  3. caturyugam

3. bahuvrīhi (BV)

All members important.

  • FORMULA: One whose Member2 is Member1.
  • Implied meaning.  EG:
    • Harry was a Redcoat>   Harry is one whose coat is red.   >   Harry is a British solider. (implied)
    • Bahu: much. Vrīhi: rice > One who has much rice > Farmer (or) Wealthy Merchant.
  • Ends in a NOUN, but used as ADJ.
  • BV is describing something OUTSIDE the compound. Or it speaks of something that RELATES to the BV. Meaning, last member will take declension of the noun it's describing. Meaning last member may NOT follow it's own paradigm declension.
  • In case where last member is using foreign declensions, pick the paradigm that's closest to it's family. EG: Garden 1, 2  |  3, 4, 5  |  9, 10, 11  |  etc…
  • TIP: If last member is using foreign declensions, it's a BV!
  1. A redhead. (One whose face/head is red.)
  2. (He whose mind is pure) obtains both prosperity and happiness.
  3. Skill in this world is obtained (by one having an established intellect).
  4. Whose intellect is steady, he is steadyintellect.
  5. Man (whose girl is beautiful). / Man (with a beautiful girl).
  6. Woman (is one whose neck is long). /  
    Woman (has a long neck).
  7. One whose form is beautiful.  /  Woman who has a beautiful form.
  8. “I am a recluse/sannyasi (one whose home is abandoned) “, said the sage.
  1. kanyā rāgamukhā asti
    NOTICE: mukha is neuter. But it takes on kanyā (fem) paradigm.
  2. sattvamanāḥ (N, Garden 6 > MAS, Garden 6) ubhe kauśalam sukham ca labhate
  3. kauśalam iha sthitabuddhi(FEM, Garden 10 > MAS, Garden 9) labhyate
  4. yasya prajñā sthitā  sa sthitaprajñaḥ
  5. naraḥ sundarakanyaḥ
  6. dīrghagrīvā nārī
  7. sundararūpā
  8. aham tyaktagṛhaḥ iti muniḥ avadat

4. avyayībhāva

  • 2 Constructions:
    • Indeclinable/prefix noun 
    • Adverb noun
  • Used as: (a) adverb (declines like ADJ)  (b) indeclinable  (c) neuter.
  1. Every/each night.
  2. Behind the chariots.
  3. Concerning the self.
  4. Adverb + noun: According to the teacher.
  5. Lifelong (as far as life).
  1. pratiniśam (ind/neuter) pratirātri (neuter, nom)
  2. anuratham (ind)
  3. adhi + ātma > adhyātma (adv)
  4. yathāguru (adv)
  5. yāvajjīvam (ind)
PREFIXES: (upasargaḥ)
ABOUT
  • Slightly modifies the nominal/verb, or gives it direction.  EG:
    • NOUNS: underground, overseas, overweight, underwear, triangle, submarine.
    • VERBS: vadati: He speaks  >  prativadati: He replies (IE: He speaks back)
  • RULES:
    • Noun's vowel may take guṇa. EG: su + buddha = suboddha.
    • Sandhi Changes: Final s of nis and dus may sandhi change to: r, ,
      EG:  nispṛha, nikāma
  • Applying to VERBS:
    • Most have indistinguishable change, but few change verb totally.
    • Prefix determines if verb takes Parasmaipada or Ātmanepada ending. Dictionary will tell.
  • Applying to GERUNDS:
    • If gerund starts with prefix, then end it with ya, and not tvā.
    • EG: ā + √gam = āgatya (Having come)   VS. √gam = gatvā (Having gone)
  • Applying to IMPERFECT: Order:  Prefix + a + verb
LIST
  • ā: [motion towards], back, return, to, fully.
    • ABOUT: Often used to indicate opposite meaning OR from and till.
    • EG: āgacchati: He approaches (goes towards). ājanma (ind): from  |  āmaraṇam (ind): till death.
  • adhi: above, over, on.
    • ABOUT: Often used in the sense, ‘above’.
    • EG: adhyātma (n): Self that is above all / pertaining to the Self.  | adhigacchati: He attains (goes above [obstacles]).  |  vaktṛ (adj): speaker  >  adhivaktṛ (adj): advocate.
  • anu: after, following, along with.
    • ABOUT: Often used to show following something or someone.
    • EG: anugacchati: He follows (goes after).
  • apa: away, off.
    • ABOUT: Often used in a negative shade OR to tell that something is far away.
    • EG: apagacchati: He goes away.  apaharati: He carries off (takes away).  apāna: downward breath.  |  apakurute: He injures [negative shade]
  • api: on, close upon. *RARE
    • EG: apihita: covered (placed into).
  • abhi: to [motion towards], against, over, upon *COMMON
    • ABOUT: Often used in the sense, ‘towards’. Similar to prefix ‘prati‘.
    • EG: abhilikhati: He draws (writes upon). |  abhyaṅga: rubbing against.  |  abhigacchati: He goes towards.
  • ati: across, beyond, surpassing, past.
    • ABOUT: Often used to show the excess of something.
    • EG: atīndriyāni: Beyond senses. |  atyanta: beyond end (infinite).  |  ativāda (mas): argument [excess speech].
  • ava: down, down into, through, away, off.
    • ABOUT: Often used to indicate down.
    • EG: avagacchati: He goes down avatāra: crossing/descends down.
  • dus: ill, bad, difficult, hard.
    • ABOUT: Often used to indicate a negative meaning and hardness or difficulty.
    • EG: duṣkṛta: badly done. |  duḥkha: suffering.  |  durlabha (adj): hard to obtain.
  • ni: down, into.
    • ABOUT: Often used in the sense, ‘down’.
    • EG: nikṣipati: He throws down. |  nivasati: He inhabits (lives in)  |  niyojya: servant.
  • nis: out from, forth, without, entirely. *COMMON
    • ABOUT: Often used in the sense of out.
    • EG: nirgacchati: He exists (goes out). nistraiguṇya: without 3 guṇas.
  • parā: away, forth, along, off.
    • ABOUT: Often used to show the OPPOSITE of something.
    • EG: jayate: He wins parājayate: He loses.
  • pari: around, about. *COMMON
    • ABOUT: Often used in the sense, ‘around’.
    • EG: parinayati: He marries (leads around [wife was led around fire 7x]).  |  parihāsaḥ: joke (laugh about).  |  parivartana (n): change, reformation [to exist in state of moving around].
  • pra: forward, onward, towards, forth. *VERY COMMON
    • ABOUT: Often used to emphasize on the meaning of a particular root. EG: pra + √nam:  aham gurum praṇamāmi: I bow to guru.
    • EG: prahasati: He ridicules (laughs at) prakṛti: nature  |  prāṇa: vital breath.
  • prati: towards / back to (in reverse direction, against, in opposition to) / every__, each [EG: pratirātri: each night]  /  in presence of (before).
    • ABOUT: Similar to “re“, like, “return, reverse”. Often used in the sense, ‘towards’. Similar to prefix ‘abhi‘. Also used in a reciprocating sense.
    • EG: pratigacchati: He returns (goes back to). | pratidāna (n): reimbursement, refund.  |  pratyāhāra: food from reverse direction.  sa mṛgam (vanam prati) anvagaccat: He followed the dear (back to the forest).  |  draupadī duryodhanam prati ānītā: Draupadi was brought (in presence of / before) Duryodhana.
  • sam: together, completely.
    • ABOUT: Similar to Greek “symphony”. Often used to show being together or togetherness.
    • EG: saṃdadhāti: He joins (places together) | saṃskṛta: put together.  |  saṃtuṣṭa: completely pleased.
  • su: well, good, right, easy, very.
    • ABOUT: Same as feel-good “euphoria”. Often used to express a positive tone in the word.
    • EG: sukṛta: well-done |  sukham: happiness (good space).
  • ut/ud: up, upwards, up out.
    • ABOUT: Often used in the sense, ‘up’ or ‘above’.
    • EG: uttiṣṭhati: He stands up. |  udāna: upward breath.
  • upa: towards, near, up to, [subordinate].
    • ABOUT: Often used in the sense, ‘towards’.
    • EG: upagacchati: He approaches (goes towards / up to). | upanetram: spectacles (up to the eye). |  upakaroti: He helps [does towards everyone].
  • vi: outward, separation, apart, away, out, into pieces, departing. *VERY COMMON
    • ABOUT: Often used to show opposition to a meaning OR to enhance the meaning.
    • EG: vitiṣṭhati: He stands apart  |  vikalpa: indecision  |  vismarati: He forgets (separates from memory).  |  videśa (mas): foreign land. [shows opposition]    |  nṛpaḥ yuddhe vijayate:  King is winning in the war.  ‘vi‘ has enhanced meaning of ‘jayate'.
SUFFIXES: (pratyayaḥ)

2 kinds of suffixes…

1. PRIMARY SUFFIXES (kṛt pratyaya)
  • ABOUT:
    • Total 6.
    • Formula: original/guṇa/vṛddhi√root  +  primary suffix.  
      • EG:
        • Root doesn't change:             √cint 10U: think      >  cintā (f): thought.
        • Root strengthens to guṇa:    √vid 2P: to know     >  veda (m): knowledge.
        • Root strengthens to vṛddhi:  √tyaj 1P: abandon  > tyāga (m): renunciation.
  • LIST:
    • a:
      • Most important.
      • Forms mostly MAS nouns.
      • RULE: If root ends in c / j, becomes: k / g.
      • EG:
        • √bhū 1P: be            > bhāva (m): condition, state
        • √grah 9P: hold        > graha (m): planet
        • √jīv 1P: live              > jīva (m): living being
        • √ji 1P: conquer       > jaya (m): victory
        • √tṝ 1P: cross            > tāra (m): crossing | avatāra (m): one who crosses down
        • √sṛj 6P: create         > sarga (m): creation
        • √tyaj 1P: abandon  > tyāga (m): renunciation
        • √yuj 7U: unite          > yoga (m): union
    • ā / ti:
      • Forms FEM nouns.
      • EG:
        • √bhāṣ 1Ā: speak   > bhāṣā (f): speech
        • √cint 10U: think    > cintā (f): thought
        • √han 2P: kill           > hiṃsā (f): injury
        • √sev 1Ā: serve       > sevā (f): service
        • √budh 1U: know    > buddhi (f): intellect
        • √dṛś 1P: see            > dṛṣṭi (f): sight
        • √gam 1P: go           > gati (f): path
        • √jan 4Ā: be born    >ti (f): birth
        • √man 4Ā: think      > mati (f): thought
        • √muc 6U: release  > mukti (f): liberation
        • √sṛj 6P: create        > sṛṣṭi (f): creation
    • ana / as / man:
      • Forms NEUTER nouns.
      • EG:
        • √ās 2Ā: sit              > āsana (n): seat
        • √dā 3U: give          > dāna (n): giving
        • √gam 1P: go          > gamana (n): going
        • √kṛ 8U: do              > karaṇa (n) means of action
        • √śru 5P: hear         > śravaṇa (n): hearing
        • √sthā 3P: stand     > sthāna (n): standing, place
        • √vac 2P: speak      > vacana (n): speech 
        • √tap 10U: heat      > tapas (n): austerity
        • √man 4Ā: think     > manas (n): mind
        • √vac 2P: speak      > vacas (n): speech
        • √bṛh 1P: expand   > brahman (n): the Absolute
        • √hu 3P: offer         > homan (n): sacrifice
        • √jan 4Ā: be born   > janman (n): birth
        • √kṛ 8U: do              > karman (n): action

 

2. SECONDARY SUFFIXES (taddhita pratyaya)
  • ABOUT:
    • Formula: STEM  secondary suffix.
    • Forms NOUNS or ADJ.
    • When word stands alone, acts as NOUN. When before a noun, acts as ADJ.
    • RULE:  First vowel/syllable in STEM often strengthens to vṛddhi grade. Example when strengthens to vṛddhi: triguṇa > traiguṇya.   In other cases, remains the same. Example when remains the same: sat > satya (instead of: sātya).
  • LIST:

Indicates: POSSESSION

      • in:
        • Formula: STEM  in  =  possessing (or) having ___.   /   figurative (implied).
        • Decline per (Garden #15-16).
        • RULES:
          • Remove final vowel if present.  EG: aśva [(m): horse]  in = aśvin [(adj): charioteer (possessing a horse)].
          • If STEM ends in -as, add vin/min.
            • EG:
              • tapas (n): austerity   tapasvin (adj): possessing austerity.
              • tejas (n): light           >  tejasvin (adj): possessing light.
        • EG:
          • jñāna (n): knowledge    jñānin (adj): wise person (possessed of knowledge), intelligent.
          • pakṣa (m): wing            >  pakṣin (adj): bird.
          • daṇḍa (m): stick            >  daṇḍin (adj): recluse (ascetic).
      • matmant / vatvant:
        •  Possessing __ OR  Full of __  OR  Having __.   
          • EG: truthful (possessing truth / full of truth / having truth)
        • Formula: Same concept as in.
        • Decline per (Garden PG3 #31-32).
        • When to use mat/vat?
          • If noun ends in a/ā: use vat.   EG: sukhavat (adj): possessed of happiness.
          • Other vowels/consonants, use mat/vat interchangeably.    EG: manīṣā śrīmataḥ yoginaḥ āgacchati: Wisdom comes from a radiant yogī.
        • EG:
          • buddhi (f): intelligence  buddhimat (adj): wisdom (possessed of intelligence), wise person.
          • sītā sukhavatī bhavati   >  Sītā becomes full of happiness / filled with happiness.

Indicates: PAST TENSE

      • tavat:
        • Identical to Past Participle.
        • EG: gata (ppp): was gone  gatavat (past participle): went  >  naraḥ vanam gatavān: Man went to the forest.

Indicates: STATE OF BEING

      • tva (n) /   (f):
        • Equivalent to: happiness, manhood, nobility.
        • Formula: Same concept as in.
        • Decline per (Garden #1 [NEUTER], #2).
        • EG:
          • amṛta (adj): immortal    amṛtatva (n): immortality
          • deva (adj): heavenly      >  devatā (f): divinity
          • madhura (adj): sweet    madhura (f): sweetness
          • nitya (adj): eternal         >  nityatva (n): eternity
          • sama (adj): even            >  samatva (n): evenness, equanimity
          • śūnya (adj): empty        >  śūnya (f): emptiness

Indicates: RELATING TO

      • ya / iya:
        • Pertaining/Relating/Belonging to OR Deriving from __.
        • Formula: Same concept as in.
        • Decline per (Garden #1-2).
        • RULE:  If STEM ends with vowel, remove it before adding yaEG: vīr>  vīrya (adj): heroism (relating to a hero)
        • EG:
          • aditi (f): Aditi                            >  āditya (m): descendent of Aditi, sun.
          • danta (m): tooth                     >  dantya (adj): dental.                           
          • kavi (m): poet                          >  kāvya (n): poetry  (related to a poet)
          • kṣatra (n): might                     >  kṣatriya (m): kṣatriya (warrior).
          • madhu (m): honey                 >  madhavya (adj): consisting of honey.
          • triguṇa (n): the 3 qualities    traiguṇya (adj): Relating to the 3 qualities.
          • paṇḍita (adj): learned            >  pāṇḍitya (n): skillfulness.
          • sat (n): existence                    >  satya (n): truth  (relating to existence)
          • sama (adj): even                     >  sāmya (n): equanimity.
          • soma (m): soma                     >  saumya (n): belonging to soma.
          • vīra (m): hero                          >  vīrya (n): heroism.
2. MORE SECONDARY SUFFIXES (taddhita)
  • LIST:
    • a:
      • Indicates: belonging to __.
      • Shows connection, such as family descent, or abstraction.
      • Often, the a replaces the STEM'S final a, so don't really see this suffix in action.
      • EG:
        • brahman (n): brahman  > brāhmaṇa (adj): a brahman (priest/caste).
        • manas (n): mind              >  mānasa (adj): mental.
        • pāṇḍu (m): Pāṇḍu            > pāṇḍava (m): descendant of Pāṇḍu.
        • putra (m): son                  >  pautra (m): grandchild.
        • śiva (m): Śiva                    >  śaiva (adj): belonging to Śiva.
    • eya:
      • Indicates: descent from __  /  pertaining to __.
      • Always takes vṛddhi.
      • EG:
        • kuntī (f): Kuntī        >  kaunteya (m): son of Kunti (Arjuna).
        • puruṣa (m): man   >  pauruṣeya(adj): human.
        • ṣi (m): sage            >  āreya (adj): pertaining to a ṛṣi.
    • ka / ika:
      • Indicates: pertaining/referring to __  /   smallness.
      • EG:
        • aśva (m): horse            aśvaka (m): colt.
        • adhibhūta (n): object  >  ādhibhautika (adj): physical.
        • adhideva (n): mind      >  ādhidaivika (adj): pertaining to the mind.
        • adhyātma (n): Self       >  ādhyātmika (adj): relating to Self.
        • anta (m): end                >  antaka (m): death.
        • dharma (m): law          dhārmika (adj): virtuous.
        • mama (pro): my           >  māmaka (adj): mine.
        • nyāya (m): logic            >  naiyāyika (m): knower of Nyāya.
        • putra (m): son              >  putraka (m): little/small son.
        • veda (m): Veda             >  vaidika (adj): relating to Veda.
    • maya / mayī [f] :
      • Indicates: made of __, filled with __.
      • No guṇa changes.
      • EG:
        • ānanda (m): joy           >  ānandamaya (adj): filled with joy.
        • cit (f): consciousness  cinmaya (adj): made of consciousness.
        • jñāna (n): knowledge  >  jñānamaya (adj): consisting of knowledge.
        • jyotiḥ (n): light              >  jyotirmaya (adj): filled with light.
        • hiraṇya (n): gold          >  hiraṇyamaya (adj): made of gold.
    • tara / tama:
      • Indicates: less/more.
      • Applied to ADJ to form comparative (stronger, bigger, larger) & superlative (strongest, biggest, largest) ADJ.
      • EG:
        • priya (adj): dear      >  priyatara (adj): dearer     >  priyatama (adj): dearest.
        • manda (adj): slow  >  mandatara (adj): slower  >  mandatama (adj): slowest.
2. SECONDARY SUFFIXES THAT FORM: ADVERBS
  • ABOUT:
    • An adverb tells how a verb is done. EG: I am walking joyfully (adverb).
    • In Sanskrit, adverb is like an Indeclinable. Meaning don't decline it.
    • 4 Ways to Form a Sanskrit Adverb:
      1. From Neuter > singular > accusative.  Will always end in -am.
        • EG: 
          • nitya (adj): eternal       >  nityam (adv): eternally.
          • satya (n): truth             > satyam (adv): truthfully.
          • sukha (n): happiness  > sukham (adv): happily, pleasantly (BG 5.3).
      2. From Neuter > singular > other cases (mostly INST/ABL).  Will always end in -ena / -āt.
        • EG: 
          • duḥkham (n): pain      >  duḥkhena (adv): painfully.
          • nitya (adj): eternal      >  nityena (adv): eternally.
          • sukham bandhāt pramucyate  >  He is easily released from bondage. (BG 5.3)
      3. Provided in Dictionary as a standalone word.
      4. 3 Suffixes in below List…
  • LIST:
    • śas (śaḥ):
      • Indicates: adverbs of manner.
      • EG:
        • eka (adj): one    >  ekaśaḥ (adv): one-by-one.
        • sarva (adj): all    sarvaśaḥ (adv): completely.
    • tas (taḥ):
      • Sometimes also forms GEN/INST adverb.
      • EG:
        • madhya (adj): middle            madhyataḥ (adv): from the middle.
        • śakyaḥ avāptum upāyataḥ  >  It is possible to obtain from proper means.  (BG 6.36)
    • vat:
      • Indicates: like, as.
      • EG:
        • aśva (m): horse              aśvavat (adv): like a horse.
        • āditya (m): sun              ādityavat (adv): like the sun.  |  jñānaṃ prakāśayati tat param ādityavat : Knowledge illumines that supreme like the Sun. (BG 5.16)
        • āścarya (n): a wonder  >  āścaryavat (adv): as a wonder (wondrously).  |  āścaryavat paśyati enam : He sees the self wondrously (like a wonder). (BG 2.29)
Name: PRESENT TENSE: Formula: English: Sanskrit:

Absolute

(Form of: Present Participle)

  • (NOM ACC VERB) (NOM ACC VERB). Two sets of action happening on LEFT & RIGHT side of sentence. EG: (While Rāma is hunting deer), (Sītā cooks food).
  • Construction is 100% identical to Present Participle, except it makes sentence start with: While/When/As/Even though…
  • RULE: The LEFT side of sentence (both the NOM & Present Participle verb) takes either LOC or GEN
  • Can also be used with Past Participle.

LOC: P/Ā locative of Present Participle

GEN: P/Ā genitive of Present Participle.

If “अपि” after LOC/GEN Present Participle verb, then sentence starts with: “Even though/while…”

  1. LOC: (While/when/as Rāma is speaking), boy hears.
  2. LOC + अपि : (Even though king is singing), boy doesn't hear him.
  3. अपि‘ can also be used without LOC/GEN:
    (Even though king is singing), boy doesn't hear him.
  4. LOC: (When Rama goes to forest), Sita goes.
  5. GEN: (While the king was speaking), the boy laughed.
  6. GEN: (While he looks), she goes.
  1. ( रामे loc    भाषमाने loc )  बलः शृणोति
  2. ( राज्ञि loc    गायति loc अपि )  बलः तम् न शृणोति
  3. ( राजा loc  गायन् loc अपि ) बलः तम् न शृणोति
  4. ( रामे loc  वनम् गच्छति loc ) सीता गच्छति
  5. ( राज्ञः gen  भाषमाणस्य gen ) बालः अहसत्
  6. ( तस्य gen  पश्यतः gen )  सा गच्छति
Benedictive / Precative
Sanskrit Names: आशीर्लिङ् / आशिस्
  • Expresses the SUBJECT'S wish, hope or blessing. English equivalent, May you be healthy. May I become successful. I do not see what would/may remove my sorrow”.
  • Used mainly for uttering blessings or prayers.
  • RARE.

P: √  +  या  +  [Garden PG4 (59)]

A:  √  [Garden PG4 (60)]
  1. P: May Rāma be the king!
  2. P: May we remember the knowledge.
  3. Ā: May you perform the auspicious ritual today!
  1. रामः नृपः भूयात्
  2. विद्याम् स्मर्यास्म
  3. सुयज्ञम् अद्य कृषीष्ठाः
Imperative
Sanskrit Names: लोट् / आज्ञा
  • COMMAND. Expresses: instruction, invitation, request, prayer and benediction.
  • 2nd person for casual. EG: You MUST (ought to)__! Leave now!
  • 3rd person for polite-ness. EG: Let/may the guru eat the fruit!  (Since it's impolite to say: Guru, eat the fruit!)
  • Used interchangeably with Optative.
  • Negated with मा.
  • Read more.
Present STEM + P/Ā [Garden PG4 (47, 48 /  55, 56)]
  1. (You) Listen, son!
  2. You must(ought to) go to the forest! / Go to the forest!
  3. POLITE: Let/may the guru eat the fruit!
  4. POLITE: May my friends be satisfied!
  1. हे पुत्र voc  शृणु
  2. त्वम् वनम् गच्छ
  3. गुरुः फलम् खादतु
  4. मम मित्रानि सुखितानि भवन्तु
Infinitive
Sanskrit Names: तुमुन् / तुमनन्त
  • Shows purpose. EG: to eat, to learn
  • Sometimes replaces Dative.
  • Negated with .
  • Read more.
Indeclinable.
guṇa+ तुम् / इतुम्
  1. Rāma wants to go.
  2. Rāma does not desire to come from the forest.
  3. Passive: Book is able to be read (by the boy).
  1. रामः गन्तुम् इच्छति
  2. रामः वनात् आगन्तुम् न इच्छति
  3. बालेन पुस्तकम् पठितुम् शक्यते
Injunctive
  • It's a negative Imperative. Hence preceded with मा (not).
  • Constructed from Aorist's 7 forms.
  • Removed in Classical Sanskrit (same fate of Aorist) because too complex. Replaced by Imperative.
  • RARE.
P/Ā (10 Verb Classes): Identical to Aorist's various forms, but without initial “अ”.
  1. Don't do that!
  2. Let Bharata not be the king! / Bharata must not be
  3. O Arjuna, you must not go to weakness!
  1. तत् मा कार्षीत् (√कृ 8U)
  2. भरतः राजा मा भूत् (√भू 1P)
  3. हे अर्जुन, क्लैब्यम् मा गमः
Optative / Potential
Sanskrit Names: लिङ् / विधि / विधिलिङ्
  • Expresses a WISH. Indicates either (A)Should/Had better”, or (B)Might/May/Would” perform the action.
  • Think of it as a gentle order (less forceful then Imperative), advice, expectation, suggestion.
  • Can be used interchangeably with Imperative, if using “should”.
  • Read more.
Class 1,4,6,10:
√  +  [Garden PG4 (49, 50)]

Non-1,4,6,10:
√  +  [Garden PG4 (57, 58)]
  1. Rāma should obtain Sītā!
  2. You should be a Pundit!
  3. He who wishes for peace should go to the forest.
  4. These boys might play in the pond!
  5. If mother should not come, then daughter might die. (LIT: might become dead)
  6. In that house, you (pl) may not find food.
  7. If Rāma should not return from the forest, then I would die!
  1. रामः सीतम् लभेत
  2. पण्डितम् भवेः
  3. यः सान्तिम् इच्छति, स वनम् चरेत्
  4. बालाः वाप्याम् दीव्येयुः
  5. यदि माता न आगच्छेत्, तर्हि कन्या मृता भवेत्
  6. तस्मिन् गृहे, आहारम् न लभेध्वम्
  7. यदि रामः वनात् न प्रतिगच्छेत्, तर्हि अहम् म्रियेय
Present Indicative
Sanskrit Names: लट् / वर्तमानकालः / वर्तमान
  • Action is done now.
  • Adding ” स्म ” turns it into Imperfect.

Construction for 10 verb classes found in [Garden PG5].

P/Ā endings: [Garden PG4 (43, 44 / 51, 52)]

  1. Man goes (is going / goes).
  2. Boy speaks (is speaking / speaks).
  3. Can use to make Imperfect: Boy spoke to his sister.
  4. Can indicate Present Indicative via Present Passive: The man/men runs. (LIT: It is run by the man/men.)
  1. नरः गच्छति
  2. बालः भाषते
  3. बालः तस्य स्वसारम् वदति स्म
  4. नरेन / नरैः inst  धाव्यते (always in Single)
Present Participle
Sanskrit Names: वर्तमाने कृदन्त
  • ing.  (EG: walking, speaking, doing)
  • (LEFT SIDE) (RIGHT SIDE). Used like Gerund; it's placed on LEFT side of sentence.
  • Acts like ADJ. Takes Gender/Num/Case(optional)  of the Subject or Noun which the Present Participle is referring to.
  • Read more (has many rules).

SIMPLIFIED:
P/Ā: √  +  [Garden PG7]

TECHNICAL:
P: √  +  अत्  [Garden (12, 31, 32)].

Ā: STEM + मान / आन + [Garden (1, 2)]

  1. (Going to the forest), Rāma sees a deer.
  2. (Seeing the deer), Sītā speaks to Rāma.
  3. (Speaking to Sīta), Rāma kisses her.
  4. Boy runs (from the falling house).
  5. Having seen Rama approaching, all stood up.
  6. Speaking, she walks.
  7. The (approaching Rāma) saw the (laughing sage).
  8. (Seeing the demons), the sages abandoned the awful forest.
  1. ( वनम् गच्छन् रामः मृगम् पश्यति
  2. ( मृगम् पश्यनी सिता रामम् वदति
  3. ( सीताम् भाषमानः रामः ताम् चुम्बति
  4. ( पततः n,abl  गृहत् n,abl )  बालः धावति
  5. ( रामम् acc आगच्छन्तम् acc  दृष्ट्वा ) सर्वे उदतिष्ठन्
  6. भाषमाना चरति
  7. ( हसन्तम् मुनिम् ) ( उपगच्छन् रामः ) अपश्यत्
  8. ( रक्षसान् पश्यन्तः ) मुनयः घोरवनम् अत्यजन्

Present Passive Participle

(Form of: Present Participle)

++ मान (for all 10 verb classes) + [Garden (1, 2)]
  1. (Being led by Rāma), the army conquers the enemies.  (Who is being led? Army. Thus declines like “army“)
  2. (Being asked by Krishna), Radha speaks.
  3. (In the forest, being gone to (approached) by Rama), the sage was pleased to see him.
  4. (The statement being spoken by me), comes from experience.
  5. (The men being slain by the lion), cry for help.
  6. (Being struck by Rama), the demons ran far from the forest.
  1. ( रामेण नीयमाना सेना शत्रूः जयति
  2. (कृष्णेन पृच्छ्यमाना ) राधा वदति
  3. ( रमेण वने loc  गम्यमाने loc )  मुनिः तम् द्रष्टुम् तुष्टः  (In this eg, the Participle agrees with the Object.)
  4. ( मया वचनम् भाष्यमानम् ) कौशलात् आगच्छति
  5. ( सिंहेन नरान् हन्यमानान् ) उप्काराय क्रोशन्ति
  6. ( रमेण तुद्यमानाः ) रक्षसाः वनात् दूरम् अधावन्
Present Passive
Sanskrit Names: कर्मणि प्रयोग / कर्मवाच्य / भाववाच्य
  • (is / are / are being)optional  –ed
  • EG: protected, is protected,  are desired,  are being desired.
  • ADJ. Same case/gender/num as noun it's referring to.
  • The OBJECT is in NOM. The SUBJECT in other cases.
  • Family: Imperfect Passive, Future Passive. 
  • Read more | More examples: 1, 2.
+ + Ā [Garden PG4 (44 / 52)]
  1. Book  (is / is being) read  by the boy.
  2. Scriptures (are / are being) heard by steady minds.
  3. Anger (is) called enemy of the wise.
  4. Bliss attained by yogis, should be obtained by all.
  5. I am desired passionatelyadv by my wife.
  6. Tree is walked (to) by Rāma.
  1. पुस्तकम् nom   बालेन  पठ्यते
  2. श्रुतिः निश्चलमनोभिः श्रूयते
  3. क्रोधः मनीषिन्शत्रुः उच्यते
  4. आनन्दः योगिभिः प्राप्यते, सर्वैः आपनीयः
  5. अहम् मम भार्यया मन्दनेन इष्ये
  6. वृक्षः रामेन चर्यते
Name: PAST TENSE: Formula: English: Sanskrit:
Aorist
Sanskrit Names: लुङ् / सामान्या भुतकालः / भूत

7 Ways to Construct

Simple:

  • Form 1:
    » P only: अ  +  √  +   P [Garden PG4 (53)for all 10 verb classes]

  • Form 2:
    » P: अ   √  +  P [Garden PG4 (45)for all 10 verb classes]
    » Ā: अ  +  √  +  Ā [Garden PG4 (46)for all 10 verb classes] * irregularities: Some take endings of Garden 54.

Reduplication:

  • Form 3:
    » P:
    अ  Reduplication (with extra Aorist rules)  +  √  +  P [Garden PG4 (45)for all 10 verb classes]
    » Ā: अ  Reduplication (with extra Aorist rules)  +  √  +  Ā [Garden PG4 (46)for all 10 verb classes]

Sibilant:

  • Form 4 (sa): 
    »
    Rules: [1] Only applies to roots that end in: श् / ष् / ह्   [2] No root strengthening. [3] Due to sandhi, last श् in root will change to क्ष्.  EG: √स्पृश् > स्पृक्ष्

    » P: अ   √  +  P [Garden PG4 (45)for all 10 verb classes]
    » Ā: अ  +  √  +  Ā [Garden PG4 (46)for all 10 verb classes]  * Irregularities: Some take endings of Garden 54.

  • Form 5 (siṣ): 
    »
    Applies (mostly) to roots ending in -आ, and following roots: √नम् 1P (worship), √यम् 1P (support), √रम् 1Ā (enjoy).

    » P Only: अ  +  vṛddhi√  +  सिष्  +  P [Garden PG4 (53)for all 10 verb classes]

  • Form 6 (s):
    » Rules: [1] Due to sandhi, स् will change into ष्   [2] Medial vowel in root, doesn't take guṇa in Ā.
    » P: अ  +  vṛddhi√  +  स् +  P [Garden PG4 (53)for all 10 verb classes] 
    » Ā: अ  +  guṇa√  +  स् +  Ā [Garden PG4 (54)for all 10 verb classes]  * Irregularity: Plural, 2nd Person doesn't have: स्.

  • Form 7 (iṣ):
    » Rules: [1]
    Medial vowel in root, is made guṇa in both P/Ā. However medial -अ is unchanged.

    » P: अ  +  vṛddhi√  +  इष् +  P [Garden PG4 (53)for all 10 verb classes] *3 irregularities
    » Ā: अ  +  guṇa√   +  इष् +  Ā [Garden PG4 (54)for all 10 verb classes]  * Irregularity: Plural, 2nd Person doesn't have:  ष्.

Passive:

  • Aorist > Passive Single > 3rd Person:
    » This is a common form you need to recognize.
    » Formula:
      +  √  + इ

    » Rules: [1] Medial vowel in root takes guṇa. EG: √मुच् 6P > अमोचि : He was released. [2] Final vowel in root takes vṛddhi. EG: √कृ 8U > अकारि : He was made.

◄ For efficiency, formula is on left side.

  1. Form 1: Rāma went to the deer. 
  2. Form 2: Guru released me from bondage.
  3. Form 3: Sītā went to the house. 
  4. Form 4: Rāma touched Sītā gently.
  5. Form 5: We went to meet the guru. 
  6. Form 6: The armies led the soldiers into battle.
  7. Form 7: Our ignorance covered our discernment. 
  1. रामः मृग्रम् अगमत्
  2. गुरुः बन्धात् माम् अमुचत
  3. सीता गृहम् जीगमत्
  4. रामः सीताम् सदयेन अस्पृक्षत्
  5. वयम् गुरुम् मिलितुम् अयासिष्म  (√या 2P: go)
  6. सेनाः युद्धे सैनिकान् अनैषुः  (√nī 1U: lead)
  7. अस्क्माकम् अविद्या स्वविवेकम् अवरिष्ट  (√vṛ 1U: cover)
Conditional
Sanskrit Names: लृङ् / ऌङ् / सङ्केत / संकेत
  • Indicates: would have
  • Rarely used.
  • Read more.
+ simple future + imperfect endings [Garden PG4 (45, 46 / 53, 54)]
  1. Rāma would have gone to forest without Lakshman.
  2. Rāma would have been the king.
  3. Had the boy not stolen the thing, his mother would not have punished him.  (LIT: Would have not the boy stolen the thing…)
  4. If men would have come, then I would have been killed.
  5. If they would have come by a good road, the cart would have not fallen.

  1. रामः लक्ष्मणा विना वनम् अगमिष्यत्
  2. रामः राजानम् अभविष्यत्
  3. बालः विषयम् न अचोरयिष्यत्, तस्य माता तम् न अतर्जिष्यत्
  4. यदि नराः अगमिष्यन् तदा हतः अभविष्यम्
  5. सुमार्गेण् चेद् आयास्यन्, शकटम् न अपतिष्यत्
Gerund / Absolutive / Indeclinable
Past Participle

Sanskrit Names: क्त्वा / त्वान्त / क्त्वान्त / ल्यबन्त / ल्यप्
  • Indicates prior COMPLETED action. Having seen __  /  After seeing __.
  • ACC comes before it.
  • Read more.

Indeclinable.
+ त्वा
If prefix, then: √ + य / या (fem)

  1. Having abandoned(After abandoning) the fire.
  2. PREFIX: Having obtained wisdom, I teach.
  1. अग्निम् acc   हित्वा
  2. मनीषाम् प्राप्य (प्र + √आप् 4P + य), उपदिशामि
Imperfect
Sanskrit Names: लङ् / अनद्यतन भूत
  • Event happened in the past.
  • Used interchangeably with: Perfect, Present Indicative स्म, Past Participle.
  • Read more.

अ  +  √  + P/Ā [Garden PG4 (45, 46 / 53, 54)]

  1. The boy read the book.
  1. बालः पुस्तकम् पठत्
Imperfect Passive / Past Passive
  • was/were -ed.
  • Use interchangeably with Past Passive Participle.
  • Family: Present Passive, Future Passive.   

+++ imperfect Ā [Garden PG4 (46)for all 10 verb classes]

  1. Book was read.
  2. Bhima & Arjuna were seen by Kunti.
  3. The stories were heard by the girls.
  4. Only INST + Imperfect Passive: The flower/flowers was/were grown. (LIT: It was grown by the flower/flowers.) 
  1. पुस्तकम् अपठ्यत
  2. भीमः अर्जुनः च कुन्त्या अदृष्येताम्
  3. कथाः कन्याभिः अश्रूयन्त
  4. पुष्पेण / पुष्पैः inst  अवर्धत (always in Single)
Past Participle
(Active परस्मैपद)
Sanskrit Names: क्तवतु
  • Past tense. Basically used like Imperfect, but with extra features.
  • Can be used as: [1] VERB: Declines like the Subject of sentence (just like in Present / Future participle), [2] ADJ: Describes someone/thing, [3] NOUN: Stands on it's own (EG: He who conquered.)
  • Negate with a अ / an अन्.
  • Related to  तवत्  suffix.
  • Used interchangeably with: Imperfect, Perfect, Present Indicative स्म.
  • Read more.

PPP  +  (mas, n): वत् / वन्त्    (fem): वती  +  declines like [Garden PG3 (31, 32)]

NOUN:

  1. Rāma went to the forest.
  2. Sītā came from the river.
  3. Negation: Sītā hasn't come from the river.
  4. Scriptures conquered ignorance.

ADJ:

  1. Rāma is one who has abandoned everything.
  2. I saw (the man who ate the fruits).
  3. The king spoke (to the man who remembered his mother).

NOUN:

  1. रामः mas   वनम्  गतवान् mas
  2. सीता fem  नद्याः  आगतवती fem
  3. सीता fem  नद्याः  अनागतवती fem
  4. शास्त्रानि n  अविद्याम्  जितवन्ति n

ADJ:

  1. रामः सर्वम् त्यक्तवान् अस्ति
  2. (फलानि खादितवन्तम् नरम्) अहम् अपश्यम्
  3. (तस्य मातरम् स्मृतवन्तम् नरम्) नृपः अवदत्
Past Passive Participle (PPP) 
Sanskrit Names: भूते कृदन्त
  • (was/were |  has/have been)optional  -ed, -en.
  • EG: was protected, were protected,  have been desired,  has spoken.
  • ADJ. Same case/gender/num as noun it's referring to.
  • The OBJECT is in NOM. The SUBJECT in other cases (mostly INST).
  • Negate with / अन्.
  • Read more.

+ -त -इत -ईत -न  [Garden PG1 (1, 2)]

  1. VERB:  Book (was/is) read                by the boy.
  2. VERB:  Daughter (was/is)  desired  by the poet.
  3. ADJ:  Established intellect.
  4. COMPOUND:  Desired fruit.
  5. COMPOUND: Kauravas saw dead bodies.
  6. VERB: Enemy (was) hated  by the people.
  7. Trees (were) seen                by Arjuna.
  8. Sound (has been) heard     by the lady.
  1. पुस्तकम् बालेन पठितम्
  2. पुत्रिका कविना इष्टा
  3. स्थिता प्रज्ञा
  4. इष्टफलम्
  5. कौरवाः मृतदेहान् अपश्यन्
  6. शत्रुः मनुष्यैः    द्विष्टः
  7. वृक्षाः अर्जुनेन  दृष्टः
  8. शब्दः नार्या      श्रुतः
Perfect
Sanskrit Names: लिट् / परोक्ष भूत
  • Same as Imperfect, but not witnessed by the speaker.
  • In practice, used interchangeably with Imperfect.
  • Has additional reduplication & P/Ā rules.
  • Read more.

redup√  +  [ (P: Single = apply guṇa to root | Dual/Pl = leave root alone)   (Ā: SDP = leave root alone) ]  +  (potential ‘ इ ‘)  +  [Garden PG4 (61, 62)]

  1. Sage spoke to Rāma.
  2. I was there.
  3. She pushed the boy.
  1. मुनिः रामम् उवाच/ऊचे
  2. अहम् तत्र आस
  3. सा बालम् तुतोद
Name: FUTURE TENSE: Formula: English: Sanskrit:
Future Passive
Participle (FPP) / Gerundive
  • Like PPP, can act as verb, adj, noun. In all cases, it declines same as the word it qualifies.
  • See it as COMMAND/FIRM SUGGESTION. Meaning, can also be used like an Imperative.
  • Indicates what will  / must / ought to be done in future.
  • “It is to be __ed”.  EG: It is to be obtained, desired!
  • If FPP is not referring to any NOM, then decline FPP in NEUTER (NOM, SING). See EG on right >>>
  • Read more.

guṇa (rarely vṛddhi)+ -अनीय -तव्य -य  + [Garden PG1 (1, 2)]

  1. Book is to be(will/must/ought to/should be) read  by the boy.
    (OR if using like Imperative)
    Let the book be read  by the boy!
  2. Rāma is to be united with Sīta.
  3. Elephants (which) should not be heard, are heard by the boys.
  4. NO NOM: It is to be protected by me.

  1. पुस्तकम् nom  बालेन सह  पाठनीयम् / पठितव्यम् / पाठ्यम्
  2. रामः सीतया  योजनीयः / योक्तव्यः / योग्यः
  3. हस्तिनः nom,pl   श्रोतव्याः बालैः श्रूयन्ते passive
  4. मया गोप्तव्यम् Neuter, Sing, Nom
Future Participle
(Active परस्मैपद & Middle आत्मनेपद)
Sanskrit Names: भविष्यत्काले कृदन्त
  • will be VERBing.
  • 2 ways to use:
    • FORM 1: Simple NOM ACC VERB.
    • FORM 2: (Left side) (Right side) sentence.
  • Read more.

Simple Future STEM + [Garden PG7]for all 10 verb classes

(Ignore the orange endings, as only applies to Present Participles)

FORM 1:

  1. Rāma will be going to Sītā.
  2. Devotee will be serving the guru.
  3. Sītā will be staying in Ayodha.
  4. They will be writing a Sanskrit story for the teacher.
  5. I will be coming to meet you tomorrow.
  6. Sītā will be fetching water from the river.
  7. Rāma will be seeing Sīta to speak about food.

FORM 2:

  1. (I speak) (to the man that will-be-going). 
    Literal: (I am speaking) (to the will-be-going-man).
  2. (We are seeing) (clouds that will be vanishing in the sky). 
    Literal: (We see) (the will-be-vanishing-clouds in the sky).
  3. (I give money) (for the woman that will be coming from the village).   
    Literal: (I give money) (for the will-be-coming-from-village woman).

FORM 1:

  1. रामः सीताम् गमिष्यन्
  2. भक्तः गुरुम् सेविष्यमानः
  3. सीता अयोधे स्थास्यन्ती
  4. ते अद्यापकाय संस्कृतकथाम् लिखिष्यन्तः
  5. अहम् त्वाम् मिलितुम् आगमिष्यमाणः श्वः
  6. सीता नद्याः जलम् प्राप्स्यन्ती  (प्र + √आप् 5P)
  7. रामः भोजनम् वदितुम् सीताम् द्रक्ष्यन्

FORM 2:

  1. ( गमिष्यमाणम् नरम् )  ( अहम् वदति )
  2. ( आकाशे  म्लैष्यतः acc,pl  घनान् acc,pl )   ( वयम् पश्यामः )
  3. ( ग्रामात् आगमिष्यन्त्यै dat नार्यै dat ) ( अहम् धनम् यच्छामि )
Future Passive
  • Same concept as Present Passive, except: will be ___en.
  • Family: Present Passive, Imperfect Passive
guṇa√  + -स्य -इष्य + [Garden PG4 (44)for all 10 verb classes]
  1. Bird will be eaten by the snake.
  2. Houses will be made by men.
  3. Rāma and Sīta will be seen in the forest.
  4. Only INST + Future Passive: The horse/horses will eat. (LIT: It will be eaten by the horse/horses.) 
  1. खगः सर्पेण खादिष्यते
  2. गृहानि नरैः करिष्यन्ते
  3. रामः सीता च वने द्रक्ष्येते
  4. अश्वेन / अश्वैः inst   खादिष्यत (always in Single)
Periphrastic Future / Distant Future
Sanskrit Names: लुट् / अनद्यतन भविष्यत्
  • Stating event in future (mostly tomorrow and after).
  • Rare.
  • Read more.

guṇa+ -ता -इता + [Garden PG4 (61)for all 10 verb classes]

  1. I will learn morality.
  2. He will do meditation in the room.
  1. अहम् धर्मम् पठितास्मि
  2. स प्रकोष्ठे ध्यानम् कर्ता
Simple Future
Sanskrit Names: लृट् / ऌट् / सामान्या भविष्यन् / भविष्यत्
  • Stating event in future. More common then Periphrastic Future.
  • Used interchangeably with Periphrastic future.
  • Read more.

guṇa+ -स्य -इष्य + P/Ā [Garden PG4 (43, 44)for all 10 verb classes]

  1. I will read the book. / I am going to read the book.
  1. पुस्तकम् acc  पठिष्यामि

 

Type: VERB FORMATIONS:
Formula: English: Sanskrit:
Primary Verbs:
Normal
Sanskrit Names: अप्रत्ययान्त
  • Everything as per above table.
     
Secondary Verbs:
Causative
Sanskrit Names: णिजन्त / णिज् / प्रेरणार्थक
  • He causes ACC to ___.
  • If more then two ACC in sentence, the caused ACC takes INST. EG: Rama causes Sita (inst) to go to forest (acc).
  • 2 Signs to Identify: [1] 2nd/3rd letter might be long. [2] अय / अय् before declension. EG: कात् , गमयेत्
  • Construction is 100% identical to Class 10 Verbs.
  • Purpose: allows verbs to be translated figuratively (implied meaning).
  • Read more.

strenghtened√  +   इ (appears as either: अय / अय्)  +  P/Ā

अय seen in: Present / Imperfect / Imperative / Present Participle

अय् seen in: Optative / Simple Future / Periphrastic Future / Future Participle / Future Passive Participle / Infinitive / Gerund

* Some roots take प् before अय / अय्. EG: √ज्ञा > ज्ञाति

  1. Mother causes boy to go
  2. Rāma causes Sītā to go to the forest.  FIGURATIVE: Rāma leads/nudges/guides/persuades Sītā to go the forest.
  3. Imperfect: Skills caused men to be protected from death.
  4. Imperative: Krishna must cause Karna to unite with Pandavas!
  5. Present Participle: Rāvaṇa is causing Sītā to become distressed.
  6. Optative: Husband should not cause wife to abandon him.
  7. Simple Future: Manthara will cause Kaikeyī to lie.
  8. Gerund: Having caused Sītā to go to the forest, Rāma hugs her.
  9. Infinitive: Dasharatha does not desire (to cause to discard Rāma) from Ayodha.
  10. Future Passive Participle: This man is not to be caused to go outside
  11. Present Passive: Sage caused truth to be desired in students.
  12. PPP: Army was caused to be gone by enemies.  FIGURATIVE: Army was eliminated by enemies.
  1. माता  बालम् गमयति
  2. रामः सीत्या inst   वनम् गमयति
  3. कौशलाः नरान् मरणात् अगोपयन्
  4. कृष्णः कर्णम् पाण्डवैः योजयतु
  5. रावणः सीतया दुःखिताम् भावयन्
  6. पतिः पत्न्या तम् न त्याजयेत्
  7. मन्थरः कैकेयीम् हर्षयिष्यति
  8. सीतया वनम् गमयित्वा, रामः ताम् स्वजते
  9. दशरथः अयोधात् (रामम् त्याजयितुम्) न इच्छति
  10. अयम् नरः बहिम्गमयितव्य
  11. मुनिः सत्यम् शिष्येषु एष्यते
  12. सेना शत्रुभिः गमित
Desiderative
Sanskrit Names: सन्नन्त / सन्
  • Subject desires/wishes/wants to do the VERB.
  • Can create ADJ. Replace STEM'S last with उ  +  decline like [Garden PG2 (24-26)]. 
  • Can create FEM NOUN. Replace STEM'S final with आ  +  decline like Garden #2.
  • Read more. 
Reduplication [Replace: अ आ ऋ ॠ इ ई > इ]  +  √  + स/इष  +  P/Ā [Garden PG4 (43-50)for all 10 verb classes]
  1. Sītā (desires to go) to the forest.
  2. Rāma (wants to sing) to Sita.
  3. ADJ: Eager to fight Rāma (wants to conquer) the army.
  4. NOUN: I (desire to do) analysis on self.
  1. सीता वनम् जिगमिषति
  2. रामः सीताम् जिगासति
  3. युयुत्सुः  रामः सेनाम् जिगीषति
  4. अहम् आत्मनि मीमांसाम् चिकीर्षामि
Intensive / Frequentative
Sanskrit Names: यङन्त / क्रियातिपत्तौ लृङ्
  • Verb & Adverb COMBINED in a single verb. EG: Rāma shines strongly : राम  जाज्वलति
  • English equivalent: “What the hell is going on here? / I am bloody well going to do it”. In English, Intensive is an adverb (hell, bloody, etc). In Sanskrit, Intensive is the actual verb.
  • Intensive has 3 ways of showing intensity: “He/she goes [1] strongly (INTENSITY[2] repeatedly (FREQUENCY[3] crookedly (WITH DIFFICULTY)”. 
    • Context tells which one it is.
  • Rare (mostly found in Vedic Sanskrit).
  • Read more.

Construction has 2 forms:

Form 1: Always take Parasmaipada. Has 2 styles.

  • Form 1, Style 1: Reduplication (apply guṇa to vowel)  +  apply guṇa to √root  +  P
  • Form 1, Style 2: Reduplication (apply guṇa to vowel)  +  √root  +  ई  +   P

Form 2: Always takes Ātmanepada.

  • Reduplication (apply guṇa to vowel)  +  √root  +  य   +   Ā
  1. DIFFICULTY: Rāma cuts the cake badly
  2. DIFFICULTY: Man walks crookedly to doctor.
  3. FREQUENCY: Sītā dances repeatedly for Rāma.
  4. INTENSITY: Rāmā strongly leads the army.
  1. रामः मोदकम् लोलुप्यते
  2. नरः वैद्यम् जङ्गम्यते
  3. सीता रामाय नरीनृत्यते
  4. रामः सेनाम् नेनीयते
Denominative
Sanskrit Names: नामधातु / नामधतवः
  • A noun converted into a verb.  English eg: He hands the cup to me. The sky blackens. Ravana's wisdom didn't blossom.
  • Verb can indicate: He/she/it [1] becomes the noun, [2] acts or behaves like/be similar to the noun, [3] desires the noun, [4] performs/does/produces the noun, [5] regards/treats as the noun, [6] makes into the noun.
  • Final vowel of noun may be adjusted (usual to ī) or  lengthened. EG: पुत्र (son) > पुत्रीयति  (He desires a son).  |  गो (cow protector) > गोपायति   (He protects)
  • NOTE: In Classical Sanskrit, ANY noun can join any form of √kṛ 8U or √bhū 1P. The noun may have small changes, especially in last letter.
    1. NOUN + √भू 1P = He becomes like a NOUN / He becomes NOUN. EG: स्तम्भ + भवति = स्तम्भीभवति : He becomes like a post.
    2. NOUN + √कृ 8U = He makes NOUN. EG: सुरभि + करोति = सुरभीकरोति : He makes fragrant.
  • Read more.

NOUN STEM  + य  +  P/Ā [Garden PG4 (43-50)]

  • BECOMES:
    1. The sky blackens(LIT: The sky becomes black.) 
  • ACTS LIKE / BE SIMILAR TO:
    1. Rāma acts like a king to his father.
    2. Kṛṣṇa acts like the Lord.
    3. Rāma protects the good.  (LIT: Rāma behaves like a cow protector.)
  • DESIRES/WISHES:
    1. Rāma wishes a son.
    2. Woman wishes a poet / king.
    3. Employee desires a salary.
  • PERFORMS/DOES/PRODUCES:
    1. Devotee performs homeage to Rāma.
    2. I perform austerity.
    3. They are taking long time/delaying to arrive.  (LIT: They are performing/doing long time for arrival.)
  • REGARDS/TREATS:
    1. Guru regards/treats the student as a son.

  • MAKES INTO:
    1. He makes the work easier.
  • BECOMES:
    1. आकाशः कृष्णायते  (कृष्ण : black)
  • ACTS LIKE / BE SIMILAR TO:
    1. रामः तस्य पितरम् राजायते  (राजन् : king)
    2. कृष्णः कृष्णायते  (कृष्ण  : Lord)
    3. रामः साधुम् गोपायति  (गोप : cow protector)
  • DESIRES/WISHES:
    1. रामः पुत्रीयति
    2. नारी कवीयति / राजीयति
    3. कर्मकरः वेतनीयति
  • PERFORMS/DOES/PRODUCES:
    1. भक्तः रामाय नमस्यति  (नमस् : homeage)
    2. अहम् तपस्यामि  (तपस् : austerity)
    3. ते आगमनाय चिरयति  (चिर : long time)
  • REGARDS/TREATS:
    1. गुरुः शिष्यम् पुत्रीयति  (Without denominative: गुरुः शिष्यम् पुत्रम् इव आचरति )
  • MAKES INTO:
    1. स कार्यम् लघयति  (लघु : easy)
  COMPOUNDS: (समास)
English: Sanskrit:
General
Info
  • All members are in stem form. Except last member is declined.
    EG: शुक्लनरम् / एन / आय
  • For all 4 types, only last member declines.
    EG:  Member1STEM  Member2STEMdeclension

6 RULES:

  • RULE 1:  (only applies to KD > ADJ + NOUN)
    • If 1st member FEM stem ends in: — then make it end in:
  • RULE 2:
    • If Member1STEM ends in -अन् (EG: राजन्), it loses last न्.
    • If Member2STEM ends in -अन्, then ALWAYS takes [Garden 1] endings. 
      EG:  आत्मन्राजा  > आत्मराजः
  • RULE 3:  (only applies to CASE-TP > PRONOUN + NOUN)
    • Treat pronoun's last d  as  t.
  • RULE 4:
    • If Member1STEM ends in , then end it in: .
      EG: मातृ + पितृ = मातृपितरौ  >  मातापितरौ  Mother and father.
  • RULE 5:
    • If __स् स्__, then change first स् to
    • EG: तमस्  स्थित  = तमःस्थित   Established in darkness.
  • RULE 6:  (only applies to उपपद)   Verb root may…
    1. Lose last letter.
    2. Change long to short vowel ( > ).
      • EG: योग + √स्था = योगस्थ
    3. Add ‘t‘  (Declines like [Garden 23]).   EG:
      • इन्द्र √जि  इन्द्रजित्  
        (conqueror of Indra)
      • ब्रह्म +  √विद्  =  ब्रह्मवित् 
        (knower of brahman)
      • तरति शोकम् आत्मवित्  (The knower of the Self overcomes sorrow.) – C.U. 7.1.3

 

 

1. द्वन्द्व

All members important. 

2 types.

  • General:
    • 2 members: Last member declines in dual. 
    • 3+ members: Last member declines in plural.
  • 2 categories.
  • CATEGORY 1: इतरेतर  :
    • X and Y“.
    • How to know if it's saying “Men, sons and sages / Man, son and sage”? Context tells.
  • CATEGORY 2: समाहार   :
    • Used mostly for opposites (EG: hot/cold).
    • Can also use like इतरेतर. 1
    • Always NEUTER, SINGLE. 2
      • Choose closest paradigm for Member2.   EG: If दी, then choose closest NEUTER paradigm that ends in . Since there isn't one, resort to short   (Garden 11).

CATEGORY 1:

  1. Sītā and Rāma go.
  2. Man, son and sage.
  3. elf and king

CATEGORY 2:

  1. Happiness and suffering.
  2. Of action and of inaction.
  3. With the horse, elephant and army. 1

 

  1. सीता रामः च गच्छतः  >  सीतारामौ गच्छतः
  2. नरः पुत्रः मुनिः च        > नरपुत्रमुनयः
  3. आत्मा राजा च           >  आत्मराजौ    RULE 2

 

  1. सुखम् दुःखम् च         > सुखदुःखम्
  2. कर्मणः अकर्मणः च    > कर्माकर्मस्य
  3. अश्वेन गजेन सेनया च  > अश्वगजसेनेन  2

2. तत्पुरुष  (TP)

Last member more important. Meaning, if first member was missing, sentence would still makes sense.

8 types.

1) व्यधिकरण-तत्पुरुष  (Case-tp)   (Son of Rāma: रामपुत्रः)

  • 2 Categories.

CATEGORY 1: (a) Case-tp: Whatever the case of the FIRST member, is the name of the compound. (b) Case-tp-ppp (past passive participle).

    • Examples for Context:
      • INST-tp:
        1. SANSKRIT: शरहत : Killed by an arrow | देवदत्त : Given by God | जलपूर्न : Filled by water.
        2. ENGLISH: Trainride (ride by a train) | Swordfight (fight by a sword) | Manmade (made by man).
      • DAT-tp:
          1. SANSKRIT: फलगत : Come for fruit | कपिजलम् : Water for monkeys.
          2. ENGLISH: Firewood (wood for fire) | Teaspoon (spoon for tea) | Handtowel (towel for hand).
      • ABL-tp:
        1. SANSKRIT: सिंहभयम् : Fear from lions | वनपुष्पम् : Flower from the forest | स्वर्गपतित : Fallen from heaven.
        2. ENGLISH: Orangejuice (juice from orange) | Sunlight (light from sun) | Airtight (tight from air).
      • GEN-tp:
        1. SANSKRIT: रामदूतः : Messenger of Rāma | राजपुत्रः : Son of the king (prince).
        2. ENGLISH: Doorbell (bell of door) | Seashore (shore of the sea) | Birthday (day of birth) | Necklace (lace of the neck)
      • LOC-tp:
        1. SANSKRIT: जलचरः : Mover in the water (fish) | युद्धसमर्थ : Capable in battle.
        2. ENGLISH: Earring (ring of ear) | Homework (work of home) | Wristwatch (watch of the wrist).
  • CATEGORY 2: Pronoun + Noun: Apply Rule 3.

CATEGORY 1:

  1. acc-tp: Townacc goneppp   (Gone to town).
  2. acc-tp: Sītā speaks to the soldier in the army.
  3. inst-tp: Seenppp by the teacher.
  4. dat-tp: Room for meditation.
  5. abl-tp: Fallenppp from heaven.
  6. gen-tp: Messenger of Rāma.
  7. loc-tp:  I see a boy at the bank of the river.

CATEGORY 2: PRONOUN + NOUN: RULE 3

    1. My boy.
    2. Your girl.
    3. My mom.
    4. His man.

 

  1. नगरगत  (adj)
  2. सीता सेनासैनिकम् लपति
  3. गुरुदृष्ट  (adj)
  4. ध्यानशाला
  5. स्वर्गपतित (adj)
  6. रामदूतः
  7. नदीतटे बालम् पश्यामि

 

  1. मम बालः      >  द्बालः
  2. तव कन्या      > त्वत्कन्या
  3. मद् + माता    >  न्माता   (त् + म् = न्)
  4. तद् + पुरुषः   > त्पुरुषः  (त् + प् = त्)

2) कर्मधारय (kd)   (White garland: शुक्लमाला)

  • 2 Categories.
  • CATEGORY 1: ADJ + Noun: First member DESCRIBES last member.
    • ENGLISH EG: Madman, Blackbird, Girlfriend.
  • CATEGORY 2: Noun + Noun/PPP: EG: Silkworm, Football, Seahorse.

CATEGORY 1: ADJ + NOUN:

  1. White garland.
  2. Virtuous army.
  3. Beautiful little cow.
  4. By the poor person.

CATEGORY 2:  NOUN + NOUN/PPP:

  1. Earth hole.
  2. I rest (by the riverbank).
  3. Welldone.

 

  1. शुक्ला (mf[ā]n) माला   >   शुक्लमाला  RULE 1
  2. धर्मिकी (mf[ā]n) सेना   >  धर्मिकसेना   RULE 1
  3. सुन्दरी अल्पा धेनुः        >  सुन्दराल्पधेनुः
  4. दरिद्रजनेन

 

  1. भूमिः बिलम्  >  भूमिबिलम्
  2. नदीतटेन श्रये
  3. सुकृत  (PPP)

3) उपपद (tpu)    (Standing in purity: सत्त्वस्थः)

    • ADJ.
    • Subject to Rule 6.
    • FORMULA: Member1 + √root + (Garden #1-2).
    • EG: सत्त्व + √स्था = सत्त्वस्थ  |  शास्त्र + √ज्ञ = शास्त्रज्ञ
  1. Man established in purity.
  2. Woman standing in purity.
  3. Kṛṣṇa and Rāma are knowers of the scriptures.
  4. Men are born of attachment to objects.
  5. Knower of Brahman.
  1. सत्त्वस्थः नरः
  2. सत्त्वस्था नारी
  3. कृष्नरामौ शास्त्रज्ञौ स्तः
  4. जनाः विषयसङ्गजाः सन्ति  (विषयाः + सङ्गस्य + √जन्)
  5. ब्रह्मवित्  (ब्रह्म + √विद्)   RULE 6

4) नञ् / समासन    (धर्म / धर्म)

    • Turns noun into antonym/negative/opposite. Can't apply to verbs.
    • Add prefix to: Adj, Nouns, Gerunds. Use अन् when joining to vowels (EG: uncomfortable, unending).
  1. NOUN: Knowledge / ignorance.
  2. NOUN: Self / Not-self.
  3. GERUND: Having come / having not come.
  4. COMPOUND: Action / non-action.
  1. विद्या  /  विद्या
  2. आत्मा / अनात्मा
  3. गत्वा  गत्वा
  4. कर्म कर्म  >  कर्माकर्म 

5) प्रादि

    • Prefix (Pāṇini's 20 major prefixes: अति, अधि, अनु, अप, अपि, अभि, अव, आ, उद्, उप, दुस्, नि, निस्, परा, परि, प्र, प्रति, वि, सम्, सु)  +  noun.
    • Used as Adj/Noun.
  1. After sound.
  1. अनु + स्वार = अनुस्वार

6) गति

    • Prefix (any indeclinable word; not limited to 20 prefixes like in प्रादि)  +  noun.
    • Used as Adj/Noun.
  1. Inner ruler (soul)
  1. अन्तर् + यामिन् = अन्तर्यामिन्

7) उपमान     (Dear like a friend: मित्रप्रिय)

    • Produces a comparison / simile. Member2 like Member1.
    • Noun + Adj.
    • ENGLISH EG: Lifelong (long like life) | Icecold (cold like ice) | Skindeep (deep like skin).
  1. Skyblue (Blue like the sky).
  2. Frienddear (Dear like a friend).
  3. Moonface (Moonlike face) (Face like the moon).
  1. गगननील  (adj)
  2. मित्रप्रिय  (adj)
  3. चन्द्रमुखः  (adj)

8) द्विगु     (Bicycle: द्विचक्रिका)

    • Number + Noun. Always end in Neuter, Singular.
    • ENGLISH EG: Bicycle, Triangle.
  1. Three worlds.
  2. Three guṇās.
  3. The four ages.
  1. त्रिलोकम् 
  2. त्रैगुण्य 
  3. चतुर्युगम्

3. बहुव्रीहि  (BV)

All members important.

  • FORMULA: One whose Member2 is Member1.
  • Implied meaning.  EG:
    • Harry was a Redcoat>   Harry is one whose coat is red.   >   Harry is a British solider. (implied)
    • बहु : much. व्रीहि : rice > One who has much rice > Farmer (or) Wealthy Merchant.
  • Ends in a NOUN, but used as ADJ.
  • BV is describing something OUTSIDE the compound. Or it speaks of something that RELATES to the BV. Meaning, last member will take declension of the noun it's describing. Meaning last member may NOT follow it's own paradigm declension.
  • In case where last member is using foreign declensions, pick the paradigm that's closest to it's family. EG: Garden 1, 2  |  3, 4, 5  |  9, 10, 11  |  etc…
  • TIP: If last member is using foreign declensions, it's a BV!
  1. A redhead. (One whose face/head is red.)
  2. (He whose mind is pure) obtains both prosperity and happiness.
  3. Skill in this world is obtained (by one having an established intellect).
  4. Whose intellect is steady, he is steadyintellect.
  5. Man (whose girl is beautiful). / Man (with a beautiful girl).
  6. Woman (is one whose neck is long). /  
    Woman (has a long neck).
  7. One whose form is beautiful.  /  Woman who has a beautiful form.
  8. “I am a recluse/sannyasi (one whose home is abandoned) “, said the sage.
  1. कन्या रागमुखा अस्ति
    NOTICE: मुख is neuter. But it takes on कन्या (fem) paradigm.
  2. सत्त्वमनाः  (N, Garden 6 > MAS, Garden 6)  उभे कौशलम् सुखम् च लभते
  3. कौशलम् इह स्थितबुद्धिना (FEM, Garden 10 > MAS, Garden 9)  लभ्यते
  4. यस्य प्रज्ञा स्थिता   स्थितप्रज्ञः
  5. नरः सुन्दरकन्यः
  6. दीर्घग्रीवा नारी
  7. सुन्दररूपा
  8. अहम् त्यक्तगृहः इति मुनिः अवदत्

4. अव्ययीभाव

  • 2 Constructions:
    • Indeclinable/prefix noun 
    • Adverb noun
  • Used as: (a) adverb (declines like ADJ)  (b) indeclinable  (c) neuter.
  1. Every/each night.
  2. Behind the chariots.
  3. Concerning the self.
  4. Adverb + noun: According to the teacher.
  5. Lifelong (as far as life).
  1. प्रतिनिशम् (ind/neuter) प्रतिरात्रि  (neuter, nom)
  2. अनुरथम्  (ind)
  3. अधि + आत्म > अध्यात्म  (adv)
  4. यथागुरु  (adv)
  5. यावज्जीवम्  (ind)
PREFIXES: (उपसर्गः)
ABOUT
  • Slightly modifies the nominal/verb, or gives it direction.  EG:
    • NOUNS: underground, overseas, overweight, underwear, triangle, submarine.
    • VERBS: वदति : He speaks  >  प्रतिवदति: He replies (IE: He speaks back)
  • RULES:
    • Noun's vowel may take guṇa. EG: सु + बुद्ध = सुबोद्ध.
    • Sandhi Changes: Final स् of निस् and दुस् may sandhi change to: र्, , ष्.
      EG: निःस्पृह, निष्काम
  • Applying to VERBS:
    • Most have indistinguishable change, but few change verb totally.
    • Prefix determines if verb takes Parasmaipada or Ātmanepada ending. Dictionary will tell.
  • Applying to GERUNDS:
    • If gerund starts with prefix, then end it with , and not त्वा.
    • EG: + √गम् = त्य (Having come)   VS. √गम् = गत्वा (Having gone)
  • Applying to IMPERFECT: Order:  Prefix + अ + verb
LIST
  • : [motion towards], back, return, to, fully.
    • ABOUT: Often used to indicate opposite meaning OR from and till.
    • EG: गच्छति  : He approaches (goes towards). जन्म (ind): from  |  मरणम् (ind): till death.
  • अधि : above, over, on.
    • ABOUT: Often used in the sense, ‘above’.
    • EG: अध्यात्म (n): Self that is above all / pertaining to the Self.  | अधिगच्छति : He attains (goes above [obstacles]).  |  वक्तृ (adj): speaker  >  अधिवक्तृ (adj): advocate.
  • अनु : after, following, along with.
    • ABOUT: Often used to show following something or someone.
    • EG: अनुगच्छति : He follows (goes after).
  • अप : away, off.
    • ABOUT: Often used in a negative shade OR to tell that something is far away.
    • EG: अपगच्छति : He goes away.  अपहरति : He carries off (takes away).  अपा: downward breath.  |  अपकुरुते : He injures [negative shade]
  • अपि : on, close upon. *RARE
    • EG: अपिहित : covered (placed into).
  • अभि : to [motion towards], against, over, upon *COMMON
    • ABOUT: Often used in the sense, ‘towards’. Similar to prefix प्रति.
    • EG: अभिलिखति : He draws (writes upon). अभ्यङ्ग : rubbing against.  |  अभिगच्छति : He goes towards.
  • अति : across, beyond, surpassing, past.
    • ABOUT: Often used to show the excess of something.
    • EG: अतीन्द्रियानि : Beyond senses. |  अत्यन्त : beyond end (infinite).  |  अतिवाद (mas): argument [excess speech].
  • अव : down, down into, through, away, off.
    • ABOUT: Often used to indicate down.
    • EG: अवगच्छति : He goes down अवतार : crossing/descends down.
  • दुस् : ill, bad, difficult, hard.
    • ABOUT: Often used to indicate a negative meaning and hardness or difficulty.
    • EG: दुष्कृत: badly done. |  दुःख : suffering.  |  दुर्लभ (adj): hard to obtain.
  • नि : down, into.
    • ABOUT: Often used in the sense, ‘down’.
    • EG: निक्षिपति : He throws down. |  निवसति : He inhabits (lives in)  |  नियोज्य : servant.
  • निस् : out from, forth, without, entirely. *COMMON
    • ABOUT: Often used in the sense of out.
    • EG: निर्गच्छति : He exists (goes out). निस्त्रैगुण्य : without 3 guṇas.
  • परा : away, forth, along, off.
    • ABOUT: Often used to show the OPPOSITE of something.
    • EG: जयते : He wins  पराजयते : He loses.
  • परि : around, about. *COMMON
    • ABOUT: Often used in the sense, ‘around’.
    • EG: परिनयति : He marries (leads around [wife was led around fire 7x]).  |  परिहासः : joke (laugh about).  |  परिवर्तन (n): change, reformation [to exist in state of moving around].
  • प्र : forward, onward, towards, forth. *VERY COMMON
    • ABOUT: Often used to emphasize on the meaning of a particular root. EG: प्र + √नम्  :  अहम् गुरुम् प्रणमामि : I bow to guru.
    • EG: प्रहसति : He ridicules (laughs at) प्रकृति : nature  |  प्राण : vital breath.
  • प्रति : towards / back to (in reverse direction, against, in opposition to) / every__, each [EG: प्रतिरात्रि : each night]  /  in presence of (before).
    • ABOUT: Similar to “re“, like, “return, reverse”. Often used in the sense, ‘towards’. Similar to prefix अभि. Also used in a reciprocating sense.
    • EG: प्रतिगच्छति : He returns (goes back to). | प्रतिदान (n): reimbursement, refund.  |  प्रत्याहार : food from reverse direction.  स मृगम् (वनम् प्रति) अन्वगच्चत् : He followed the dear (back to the forest).  |  द्रौपदी दुर्योधनम् प्रति आनीता : Draupadi was brought (in presence of / before) Duryodhana.
  • सम् : together, completely.
    • ABOUT: Similar to Greek “symphony”. Often used to show being together or togetherness.
    • EG: संदधाति : He joins (places together) | संस्कृत : put together.  |  संतुष्ट : completely pleased.
  • सु : well, good, right, easy, very.
    • ABOUT: Same as feel-good “euphoria”. Often used to express a positive tone in the word.
    • EG: सुकृत : well-done |  सुखम् : happiness (good space).
  • उत् / उद् : up, upwards, up out.
    • ABOUT: Often used in the sense, ‘up’ or ‘above’.
    • EG: त्तिष्ठति : He stands up. |  उदान : upward breath.
  • उप : towards, near, up to, [subordinate].
    • ABOUT: Often used in the sense, ‘towards’.
    • EG: उपगच्छति : He approaches (goes towards / up to). | उपनेत्रम् : spectacles (up to the eye). |  उपकरोति : He helps [does towards everyone].
  • वि : outward, separation, apart, away, out, into pieces, departing. *VERY COMMON
    • ABOUT: Often used to show opposition to a meaning OR to enhance the meaning.
    • EG: वितिष्ठति : He stands apart  |  विकल्प : indecision  |  विस्मरति : He forgets (separates from memory).  |  विदेश (mas): foreign land. [shows opposition]    |  नृपः युद्धे विजयते :  King is winning in the warवि has enhanced meaning of जयते.
SUFFIXES: (प्रत्ययः)

2 kinds of suffixes…

1. PRIMARY SUFFIXES (कृत् प्रत्यय)
  • ABOUT:
    • Total 6.
    • Formula: original/guṇa/vṛddhi√root  +  primary suffix.  
      • EG:
        • Root doesn't change:             √चिन्त् 10U: think      >   चिन्ता (f): thought.
        • Root strengthens to guṇa:    √विद् 2P: to know     >   वेद (m): knowledge.
        • Root strengthens to vṛddhi:  √त्यज् 1P: abandon  >   त्याग (m): renunciation.
  • LIST:
    • :
      • Most important.
      • Forms mostly MAS nouns.
      • RULE: If root ends in च् / ज्, becomes: क् / ग्.
      • EG:
        • √भू 1P: be                 > भा (m): condition, state
        • √ग्रह् 9P: hold           > ग्र (m): planet
        • √जीव् 1P: live            > जी (m): living being
        • √जि 1P: conquer     > (m): victory
        • √तॄ 1P: cross            > ता (m): crossing  | अवता (m): one who crosses down
        • √सृज् 6P: create       >र्ग (m): creation
        • √त्यज् 1P: abandon  > त्या (m): renunciation
        • √युज् 7U: unite         > यो (m): union
    • / ति :
      • Forms FEM nouns.
      • EG:
        • √भाष् 1Ā: speak        > भाषा (f): speech
        • √चिन्त् 10U: think      > चिन्ता (f): thought
        • √हन् 2P: kill               > हिंसा (f): injury
        • √सेव् 1Ā: serve          > सेवा (f): service
        • √बुध् 1U: know         > बुद्धि (f): intellect
        • √दृश् 1P: see             > दृष्टि (f): sight
        • √गम् 1P: go               >ति (f): path
        • √जन् 4Ā: be born     > जाति (f): birth
        • √मन् 4Ā: think          >ति (f): thought
        • √मुच् 6U: release      > मुक्ति (f): liberation
        • √सृज् 6P: create        > सृष्टि (f): creation
    • अन / अस् / मन् :
      • Forms NEUTER nouns.
      • EG:
        • √आस् 2Ā: sit          > आस (n): seat
        • √दा 3U: give          > दा (n): giving
        • √गम् 1P: go            > गम (n): going
        • √कृ 8U: do             > कर (n) means of action
        • √श्रु 5P: hear           > श्रव (n): hearing
        • √स्था 3P: stand       > स्था (n): standing, place
        • √वच् 2P: speak       > वच (n): speech
        • √तप् 10U: heat       > तपस् (n): austerity
        • √मन् 4Ā: think        > मनस् (n): mind
        • √वच् 2P: speak      > वचस् (n): speech
        • √बृह् 1P: expand     > ब्रह्मन् (n): the Absolute
        • √हु 3P: offer            > होमन् (n): sacrifice
        • √जन् 4Ā: be born   >न्मन् (n): birth
        • √कृ 8U: do              >र्मन् (n): action
2. SECONDARY SUFFIXES (तद्धित प्रत्यय)
  • ABOUT:
    • Formula: STEM  secondary suffix.
    • Forms NOUNS or ADJ.
    • When word stands alone, acts as NOUN. When before a noun, acts as ADJ.
    • RULE:  First vowel/syllable in STEM often strengthens to vṛddhi grade. Example when strengthens to vṛddhi: त्रिगुण > त्रैगुण्य.   In other cases, remains the same. Example when remains the same: सत् > सत्य  (instead of: सात्य).
  • LIST:

Indicates: POSSESSION

      • इन् :
        • Formula: STEM  इन्  =  possessing (or) having ___.  figurative (implied).
        • Decline per (Garden #15-16).
        • RULES:
          • Remove final vowel if present.  EG: अश्व  [(m): horse]  +   इन्  =  अश्विन्  [(adj): charioteer (possessing a horse)].
          • If STEM ends in -अस्, add विन् / मिन्.
            • EG:
              • तपस्  (n): austerity  >  तपस्विन्  (adj): possessing austerity.
              • तेजस्  (n): light         >  तेजस्विन्  (adj): possessing light.
        • EG:
          • ज्ञान (n): knowledge  >   ज्ञानिन् (adj): wise person (possessed of knowledge), intelligent.
          • पक्ष (m): wing             >   पक्षिन् (adj): bird.
          • दण्ड (m): stick             दण्डिन् (adj): recluse (ascetic).
      • मत्मन्त् / वत्वन्त् :
        • Possessing __ OR  Full of __  OR  Having __.   
          • EG: truthful (possessing truth / full of truth / having truth)
        • Formula: Same concept as इन्.
        • Decline per (Garden PG3 #31-32).
        • When to use मत् / वत् ?
          • If noun ends in / : use वत्.   EG: सुखवत् (adj): possessed of happiness.
          • Other vowels/consonants, use मत् / वत् interchangeably.   EG: मनीषा श्रीतः योगिनः आगच्छति : Wisdom comes from a radiant yogī.
        • EG:
          • बुद्धि (f): intelligence  बुद्धिमत् (adj): wisdom (possessed of intelligence), wise person.
          • सीता सुखवती भवति       >  Sītā becomes full of happiness / filled with happiness.

Indicates: PAST TENSE

      • तवत् :
        • Identical to Past Participle.
        • EG: गत (ppp): was gone   >  तवत् (past participle): went   >   नरः वनम् गतवान् : Man went to the forest.

Indicates: STATE OF BEING

      • त्व (n) / ता (f):
        • Equivalent to: happiness, manhood, nobility.
        • Formula: Same concept as इन्.
        • Decline per (Garden #1 [NEUTER], #2).
        • EG:
          • अमृत (adj): immortal  अमृतत्व (n): immortality
          • देव (adj): heavenly      >  देवदेवता (f): divinity
          • मधुर (adj): sweet         मधुरता (f): sweetness
          • नित्य (adj): eternal       नित्यत्व (n): eternity
          • सम (adj): even            >  समत्व (n): evenness, equanimity
          • शून्य (adj): empty        शून्यता (f): emptiness

Indicates: RELATING TO

      • / इय :
        • Pertaining/Relating/Belonging to OR Deriving from __.
        • Formula: Same concept as इन्.
        • Decline per (Garden #1-2).
        • RULE:  If STEM ends with vowel, remove it before adding .   EG: वीर > वीर्य (adj): heroism (relating to a hero)
        • EG: 
          • दिति (f): Aditi                   >  दित्य (m): descendent of Aditi, sun.
          • दन्त (m): tooth                   >  दन्त्य (adj): dental.                           
          • कवि (m): poet                    >  काव्य (n): poetry  (related to a poet)
          • क्षत्र (n): might                    >  क्षत्रि (m): kṣatriya (warrior).
          • मधु (m): honey                  >  मधव्य  (adj): consisting of honey.
          • त्रिगुण (n): the 3 qualities  >  त्रैगुण्य (adj): Relating to the 3 qualities.
          • पण्डित (adj): learned         >  पाण्डित्य (n): skillfulness.
          • सत् (n): existence              >  सत्य (n): truth  (relating to existence)
          • सम (adj): even                   >  साम्य (n): equanimity.
          • सोम (m): soma                   >  सौम्य (n): belonging to soma.
          • वीर (m): hero                      >  वीर्य (n): heroism.
2. MORE SECONDARY SUFFIXES (तद्धित)
  • LIST:
    • :
      • Indicates: belonging to __.
      • Shows connection, such as family descent, or abstraction.
      • Often, the replaces the STEM'S final , so don't really see this suffix in action.
      • EG:
        • ब्रह्मन् (n): brahman  >  ब्राह्म (adj): a brahman (priest/caste)
        • मनस् (n): mind         मान (adj): mental.
        • पाण्डु (m): Pāṇḍu      > पाण्ड (m): descendant of Pāṇḍu.
        • पुत्र (m): son              >  पौत्र (m): grandchild.
        • शिव (m): Śiva            शै (adj): belonging to Śiva.
    • एय :
      • Indicates: descent from __  /  pertaining to __.
      • Always takes vṛddhi.
      • EG:
        • कुन्ती (f): Kuntī     >  कौन्ते (m): son of Kunti (Arjuna).
        • पुरुष (m): man     >  पौरुषे (adj): human.
        • ऋषि (m): sage     >  आर्षे (adj): pertaining to a ṛṣi.
    • / इक :
      • Indicates: pertaining/referring to __   /   smallness.
      • EG:
        • अश्व (m): horse        अश्व (m): colt.
        • अधिभूत (n): object  >  आधिभौति (adj): physical.
        • अधिदेव (n): mind    >  आधिदैवि (adj): pertaining to the mind.
        • अध्यात्म (n): Self       >  आध्यात्मि (adj): relating to Self.
        • अन्त (m): end          >  अन्त (m): death.
        • धर्म (m): law             धार्मि (adj): virtuous.
        • मम (pro): my           >  माम (adj): mine.
        • न्याय (m): logic         >  नैयायि (m): knower of Nyāya.
        • पुत्र (m): son             >  पुत्र (m): little/small son.
        • वेद (m): Veda           वैदि (adj): relating to Veda.
    • मय / मयी [f] :
      • Indicates: made of __, filled with __.
      • No guṇa changes.
      • EG:
        • आनन्द (m): joy                आनन्दमय (adj): filled with joy.
        • चित् (f): consciousness  चिन्मय (adj): made of consciousness.
        • ज्ञान (n): knowledge        >  ज्ञानमय (adj): consisting of knowledge.
        • ज्योतिः (n): light                >  ज्योतिर्मय (adj): filled with light.
        • हिरण्य (n): gold                >  हिरण्यमय (adj): made of gold.
    • तर / तम :
      • Indicates: less/more.
      • Applied to ADJ to form comparative (stronger, bigger, larger) & superlative (strongest, biggest, largest) ADJ.
      • EG:
        • प्रिय (adj): dear   >  प्रियतर (adj): dearer   प्रियतम (adj): dearest.
        • मन्द (adj): slow    मन्दतर (adj): slower   >  मन्दतम (adj): slowest.
2. SECONDARY SUFFIXES THAT FORM: ADVERBS
  • ABOUT:
    • An adverb tells how a verb is done. EG: I am walking joyfully (adverb).
    • In Sanskrit, adverb is like an Indeclinable. Meaning don't decline it.
    • 4 Ways to Form a Sanskrit Adverb:
      1. From Neuter > singular > accusative.  Will always end in -अम्.
        • EG: 
          • नित्य (adj): eternal      >  नित्यम् (adv): eternally.
          • सत्य (n): truth             > सत्यम् (adv): truthfully.
          • सुख (n): happiness    > सुखम् (adv): happily, pleasantly (BG 5.3).
      2. From Neuter > singular > other cases (mostly INST).  Will always end in -एन / -आत्.
        • EG: 
          • दुःखम् (n): pain        >  दुःखेन (adv): painfully.
          • नित्य (adj): eternal   >  नित्येन (adv): eternally.
          • सुखम् बन्धात् प्रमुच्यते   >  He is easily released from bondage. (BG 5.3)
      3. Provided in Dictionary as a standalone word.
      4. 3 Suffixes in below List…
  • LIST:
    • शस् (शः):
      • Indicates: adverbs of manner.
      • EG:
        • एक (adj): one   एकशः  (adv): one-by-one.
        • सर्व (adj): all      सर्वशः  (adv): completely.
    • तस् (तः):
      • Sometimes also forms GEN/INST adverb.
      • EG:
        • मध्य (adj): middle                   >  मध्यतः (adv): from the middle.
        • śakyaḥ avāptum upāyataḥ  >  It is possible to obtain from proper means.  (BG 6.36)
    • वत् :
      • Indicates: like, as.
      • EG:
        • अश्व (m): horse            अश्ववत् (adv): like a horse.
        • आदित्य (m): sun          आदित्यवत् (adv): like the sun.  |  ज्ञानं प्रकाशयति तत् परम् आदित्यवत्  : Knowledge illumines that supreme like the Sun. (BG 5.16)
        • आश्चर्य (n): a wonder   >  आश्चर्यवत् (adv): as a wonder (wondrously).  | आश्चर्यवत् पश्यति एनम् : He sees the self wondrously (like a wonder). (BG 2.29)