Lesson 63: Sanskrit for Beginners Course: Verb Class 3 / Su & Dus


How to construct Verb Class 3. How to form reduplicated verbs. Prefix: su/dus.

Source: Introduction to Sanskrit (4th Ed) – Thomas Egenes – Part Two

Session deals with: VOL2, PG 72-76


  • What is a “Class”? How verb stem is made from the root.
  • All verb stems fall under 10 classes (daśa-gaṇa).
    • 1, 4, 6, 10:
      • All stems end in: a
      • L54.
    • Non 1, 4, 6, 10:
      • Stems don't end in: a
      • Class 8:
        • How to make?
          1. Singular:
            • root + o + declension.
            • EG:
              • √tan     +   o   + declension  = tanoti  : He stretches
                √तन्      +   + ति                  = तनोति
          2. Dual/Pl:
            • root + u + declension.
            • EG:
              • √tan     +  u     +  declension = tanuvaḥ : We two stretch
                √तन्      +      +  ते                  = तनुते


REDUPLICATION:  (abhyāsa अभ्यास  /  dvitva द्वित्व)

  • What is it?  Way of forming…
    1. Verb class 3.
    2. Verb class 1-10 for: Perfect L26, Desiderative L30, Intensive L31, Aorist L31
      • Each of these 3 will have additional reduplication rules to apply. Meaning:
        1. To form Perfect: Apply reduplication rules on this THIS PAGE + apply Perfect reduplication rules.
        2. To form Desiderative: Apply reduplication rules on this THIS PAGE + apply Desiderative reduplication rules.
        3. To form Intensive: Apply reduplication rules on this THIS PAGE + apply Intensive reduplication rules.
        4. To form Aorist: Apply reduplication rules on this THIS PAGE + apply Aorist reduplication rules.
    3. To form present tense for some roots. (EG: sthā  स्था  1P (stand)  >  tiṣṭhati  तिष्ठति)
  • What's involved?
    • Root is reduplicated. Fancy way of saying, double the root, but with some rules.
  • Got an example?
    • Look at these two roots…
      1. √hu हु  3P (offer)          >  huhuti   हुहुति
      2. √hā हा 3P (abandon)   >  ti    हाहाति
    • The green color is reduplicated. The pink is original. And blue is P/Ā ending as usual. However, above example is only for demonstration, because the reduplicated green part has some rules…
  • Let's look at proper example using Verb class 3….
√hu हु  3P (offer)
Single: Dual: Plural:
juhoti    जुहोति juhutaḥ    जुहुतः juhvati     जुह्वति
juhoṣi    जुहोषि juhuthaḥ  जुहुथः juhutha    जुहु
juhomi  जुहोमि juhuvaḥ    जुहुवः juhumaḥ  जुहुमः
    • Keep your eye on root in above table…
      • 2 Rules:
        • For Single:           Apply guṇa to root vowel
        • For Dual/Plural: Root vowel is untouched.
      • Exceptions:
        • In Intensive, apply guṇa to root vowel in Single/Dual/Plural.
    • What are the reduplication rules? Let's look at them in below table…
    • Below rules apply to:
      1. Verb Class 3
      2. Perfect, Desiderative, Intensive, Aorist : In this case, additional duplication rules will be applied. These additional rules are mentioned on pages of each, in this course.
  Rule: Example:
1. Long vowel  >  Short vowel
> a, ī > i, ū > u)
√bhī  भी  3P (to fear)            >   bibheti      बिभेति       * Class 3
√dā    दा  3U (to give)
           >   dati       दाति        * Class 3
√dhā  दा  3U (to place)        >   dadhāti     धाति        * Class 3
2. Aspirated  Unaspirated
(kha > ka, gha > ga, cha > ca, jha > ja, ṭha > ṭa, ḍha > ḍa, tha > ta, dha > da, pha > pa, bha > ba)
√bhī    भी    3P (to fear)         >   bibheti       बिभेति       * Class 3
√bhas भस्  3P (to blame)     >   babhasti    भस्ति      * Class 3
√dhā   धा    3U (to place)     
>   dadhāti      धाति       * Class 3
3. ṛ ऋ   >   i इ √bhṛ भृ  3U (to carry)            >   bibharti     बिभर्ति       * Class 3
√ghṛ  घृ 3P (to shine)            >   jigharti       जिघर्ति       * Class 3
√pṛ    पृ  3P (to protect)        >   piparti        पिपर्ति       * Class 3
4. h ह्   >   j ज् √hā   हा 3P (to abandon)     >    jati         हाति       * Class 3
√hu   हु  3P (to sacrifice)      >    juhoti         जुहोति       * Class 3
5. If root starts with 2 consonants,
only 1st consonant reduplicates.
jval    ज्वल्  1P (to blaze)          >   jajvala         ज्वल      * Perfect 
prach प्रछ्  6P  (to ask)             
>   papracha    प्रछ        * Perfect     
tya     jत्यज् 1P (to abandon)   
>   tatyajitha    त्यजिथ   * Perfect
6. If s स् is followed by consonant,
remove s स् and consonant reduplicates.
stip   स्तिप्  1Ā  (to drip)        >    tiṣṭepa        तिष्टेप         * Perfect
stuc  स्तुच्   1Ā (to shine)     
>    tuśṭoca        तुश्टोच      * Perfect
svap  स्वप्   2P (to sleep)      >    suṣvapitha  सुष्वपिथ    * Perfect         

sthā  स्था    1P (stand)
          >    tiṣṭhati         तिष्ठति      * Present    

      • Notice reduplication even applies to few roots for Present tense.
      • √sthā is irregular, meaning it'll have slightly different rules outside what you'd expect. The irregularity is that last ā आ reduplicates as i इ and not a अ as per rule 1. Hence it's: tति.
      • Why does s स् become ṣ ष् ? Because if s स् is preceded by anything, except a/ā अ/आ – it retroflexes. See VOL2PG346.
      • Also notice how retroflexed ṣ ष् further affects the following t त्, changing it into retroflex ṭ ट्.
      • Another rule is mentioned on VOL2PG72#6. If root starts with s स्, and that s स् is followed by a stopsparśa  (which is usually t त् or p प्) — then only the stop (t त् or p प्) is repeated.
7. Velars (guttural) convert into palatals.            

ka क,  kha ख,  ga ग,  gha घ,  ṅa ङ

ca च,  cha छ,  ja ज,  jha झ,  ña ञ

√ghṛ     घृ    3P (to shine)      >   jigharti    जिघर्ति     * Class 3         

√khād  खाद् 1P  (to eat)        >  cakhāda  खाद      * Perfect
√ki  कि   3P (to perceive)      >  ciketi        चिकेति    * Class 3    


√kṛ    कृ  8U (do)                    >  cakāra      कार      * Perfect
* Irregular. Hence ṛ ऋ doesn't change into i इ per rule 3.

8. Samprasarana Rule:
(Seen in Garden #30, Corresponding semi-vowel)             

  • If ya य is first letter of root, replace with: i इ.
  • If va व is first letter of root, replace with: u उ.
√yaj   यज्  1Ā       >   iyajitha    यजिथ      * Perfect
√vac  वच्  2P        >  uvāca       वाच        * Perfect
Other rules applied sometimes on some roots:
1. Vowel + first consonant of root are repeated. √dā    दा  3U (to give)           >   dati       दाति        * Class 3
2. First syllable (usually) appears in weaker form. √dā    दा  3U (to give)           >   dati       दाति        * Class 3
3. The vowel that's vṛddhi/guṇa grade will usually reduce in strength. √dā    दा  3U (to give)           >   dati       दाति        * Class 3


Alternative Reduplication Explanation + 7 Extra Rules

  • Reduplication consists in doubling of the first vowel of a verbal root together with any consonants that precedes it.
    • EG:
      • tud तुद् (to strike)                >   tutud        तुतुद्
      • daridrā दरिद्रा (to be poor) >   dadaridrā दरिद्रा
  • That portion of a reduplicative form which is prefixed to the verbal root is called the reduplicative syllable.
    • EG:
      • tu तु in tutud         तुतुद्
      • da द in dadaridrā दरिद्रा
    • A reduplicated verbal form cannot be reduplicated again.
  • An aspirate letter of a verbal root is in the reduplicative syllable represented by the corresponding unaspirate letter.
    • EG:
      • chid छिद् (to split)     >   cicchid   चिच्छिद्
      • dhā धा (to place)       >   dadhā    धा
      • bhuj भुज् (to enjoy)   >   bubhuj   बुभुज्
  • A guttural in the reduplicative syllable is represented by the corresponding palatal unaspirate letter.
    • EG:
      • kam कम् (to love)    cakam  कम्
      • gam गम् (to go)        jagam  गम्
      • khan खन् (to dig)    cakhan खन्
      • ghas घस् (to eat)    >  jaghas   घस्
  • h ह् in the reduplicative syllable is represented by j ज्.
    • EG:
      • hu हु (to sacrifice)   >   juhu जुहु
  • If the verbal root commences with more than one consonants, only the first is reduplicated.
    • EG:
      • śru श्रु (to hear)             śuśru      शुश्रु
      • bhrāj भ्राज् (to shine)   >   babhrāj  भ्राज्
      • kram क्रम् (to go)         >   cakram   क्रम्
  • But if a verbal root commences with a sibilant (śa, ṣa, sa, ha श, ष, स, ह) which is followed immediately by a unvoiced (surd) consonant (ka, kha, ca, cha, ṭa, ṭha, ta, tha, pa, pha  क, ख, च, छ, ट, ठ, त, थ, प, फ), this unvoiced consonant or its representative must be repeated in the reduplicative syllable.
    • EG:
      • stambh स्तम्भ् (to support)    >   tastambh स्तम्भ्
      • sthā स्था (to stand)                 >   tasthā       तस्था
      • skand स्कन्द् (to leap)             >   caskand    स्कन्द्
  • Radical a अ, ā आ and ḷ ऌ are in reduplicative syllable represented by a अ.
    • EG:
      • bhrāj भ्राज् (to shine)     >      babhrāj   बभ्राज्
  • Radical i इ and ī ई are in reduplicative syllable represented by i इ.  * Unmentioned in our table able.
    • EG:
      • chid छिद् (to split)    >   cicchid  चिच्छिद्
      • krī क्री (to buy)          >   cikrī       चिक्री
  • Radical non-final e ए and ai ऐ are in reduplicative syllable represented by i इ.  * Unmentioned in our table able.  
    • EG:
      • vep वेप् (to tremble)    >    vivep  विवेप्
  • Final e ए and ai ऐ are in reduplicative syllable represented by a अ.  * Unmentioned in our table able.
    • EG:
      • dhe धे (to suck)    >   dadhe  दधे
      • gai गै (to sing)        jagai     जगै
  • Radical u उ, ū ऊ and au औ are in reduplicative syllable represented by u उ * Unmentioned in our table able.
    • EG:
      • ḍhauk ढौक् (to approach)    >    ḍuḍhauk  डुढौक्
  • Radical non-final o ओ are in reduplicative syllable represented by u उ * Unmentioned in our table able.
  • Final o ओ are in reduplicative syllable represented by a अ   * Unmentioned in our table able.
    • EG:
      • śo शो (to sharpen)     >     śaśo  शो
  • Radical ṛ ऋ and ṝ ॠ are in reduplicative syllable represented by a अ, but in that of the Present and Imperative of roots of the 3rd class by i इ * Unmentioned in our table able.
    • EG:
      • bhṛ भृ (to bear)    >   babhār  भार्  and  bibharti  बिभर्ति (Present)
      • tṝ तॄ (to cross)       >   tatār      ततार्



PREFIX SU सु  /  DUS  दुस्  :

  • List of prefixes:
    • a / an (before vowel) : makes noun opposite.
    • su / dus:
      1. su सु         : well, very, good, right, easy.
      2. dus दुस्    : ill, bad, difficult, hard.
        • Sandhi can make it: duḥ/duṣ/dur   दुः / दुष् / दुर्
        • Usually becomes duṣ/duḥ before: ka/kha/pa/pha  / / /
          • EG: duḥkha  दुः
  • Examples:
sukha       सुख      (n) Happiness
sukṛta      सुकृत   (ppp) Well-performed
subodha सुबोध   (adj) Easy to understand
duḥkha    दुःख     (n) Suffering
duṣkṛta    दुष्कृत (ppp) Badly-performed
durjaya   दुर्जय    (adj) Difficult to conquer
rakta   दूरक्त  (adj)
* Why irregularity with “dū”? See pg76#3. Basically, if a/i/u
comes before r, they become ā/ī/ū. More on VOL2PG340#1.
Badly colored
durvanam  दुर्वनम्  (n) Difficult forest
  • SPECIAL RULE: Noun's vowel may take guṇa.
    • EG: su सु + budha बुद्ध  =  subodha  सुबोद्ध  (adj)  : Easy to understand.


  • PG 73, 74, 75: Say out aloud one the Class 3 paradigm on each page, for familiarity.
  • PG 78:  (2 weeks to finish)
    • #5 b, c, g
    • #6 a-i


You'll have more questions throughout the course. How to ask? Leave in comments below, so others can also benefit. We'll respond within 48 hours. Only ask specific to this Lesson.


Recorded 13 Feb, 2022

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