Lesson 70: Consonant Paradigms, Infinitive, Etad (This)


Covers paradigms for stems that end in c/t/d. Infinitive (Rama desires TO GO to forest). And “etad” paradigm to express “This”.

Source: Introduction to Sanskrit (4th Ed) – Thomas Egenes – Part Two

Session deals with: VOL2, L27, PG 183-193

Consonant Paradigms:

  • These are STEMS that end in consonants. You already know some like:
    • rajan      रजन्       (Garden #3)
    • manas   मनस्       (Garden #6)
    • hastin    हस्तिन्     (Garden #15)
    • havis      हविस्      (Garden #17)
  • This Chapter introduces two final ones:
    • c         वाच्         (Garden #8)
    • marut    मरुत्       (Garden #23)   |  NOTE: MAS/FEM stems endings in “t  त्” have identical endings.
  • Good News: Stems ending with a consonant have 100% identical endings, except for NOM/ACC.


  • ABOUT:
    • Shows purpose.  EG: “to go”, “to cook”, “to learn”.
    • Indeclinable. Meaning it doesn't have declensions. Yey!
    • Treat it like an Accusative.
    • Used interchangeably with DATIVE, since DATIVE can also be used to show purpose.
    • Negated with: na  न
    • guṇa√root    +    [ tum  तुम् itum  इतुम् ]
      • EG: √ji √जि  jetum जेतुम्  :  to conquer  |  na jetum  न जेतुम्  :  to not conquer
    • REVISION: When it says “guṇa“, it means (a) Find the first vowel in the root, and (b) Change it to guṇa grade per Garden #30.
  • Infinitive is used most commonly with 2 roots:
    1. √śak √शक् 5P (be able)
      • EG: Rāma is able to go to the forest.  :  rāmaḥ vanam gantum śaknoti  रामः वनम् गन्तुम् शक्नोति
    2. √arh 1P (be worthy)
      • EG: O Arjuna! You are not worthy (unworthy) to grieve for these men. : arjuna! tvam tebhyaḥ narebhyaḥ na anuśocitum arhasi   अर्जुन! त्वम् तेभ्यः नरेभ्यः अनुशोचितुम् अर्हसि
  • Examples:
Rāma wants to go. rāmaḥ gantum icchati
रामः गन्तुम् इच्छति
Boy is able to read the book. bālaḥ pustakam paṭhitum śaknoti
बालः पुस्तकम् पठितुम् शक्नोति
Rāma didn't want to kill the deer, but Sītā asked him. rāmaḥ mṛgaṃ na hantum icchati, sītā tu tam apṛcchat
रामः मृगं न हन्तुम् इच्छति, सीता तु तम् अपृच्छत्
If you are unable to see the truth, then you are blind. yadi satyam draṣṭum na śaknoṣi, tadā tvam andhaḥ asi
यदि सत्यम् द्रष्टुम् न शक्नोषि, तदा त्वम् अन्धः असि
Passive: Book is able to [be] read by the boy. bālena pustakam paṭhitum śakyate
बालेन पुस्तकम् पठितुम् शक्यते

Pronoun etad (This):

  • In English, there's only one word for “This”. In Sanskit, there are 3 stems for “This”, each with own declensions.
  • In 9th Edition of Garden, study the “etad एतद्” stem on PG3, #40-#42.
  • Example:
    • MAS:        (This man) is healthy      :  (eṣaḥ naraḥ) kuśalaḥ asti   (एषः नरः) कुशलः अस्ति
    • FEM:        (This woman) is healthy :  (eṣā nārī) kuśalā asti         (एषा नारी) कुशला अस्ति
    • NEUTER: (This fruit) is good           :  (etat phalam) śubham asti   (एतत् फलम्) शुभम् अस्ति


  • STEP 1:
  • STEP 2:
    • VOL2, PG185-188: Say out loud all the infinite words.
  • STEP 3:
    • Study the new etad (“This”) paradigm in Garden #40-42 (need 9th+ Revision).
  • STEP 4:
    • VOL2, PG193: Say out loud new vocabulary.
  • STEP 5:
    • VOL 2, PG194-197: Do 6 & 7 exercises.
  • STEP 6:
    • VOL2, PG178: Attempt to translate the verse.
      1. Break down sandhi.
      2. Write English definition top of each word.
      3. Translate.
      4. Compare your translation to author's.
  • STEP 7:
    • PG180-182: Theory. Read if wish.


You'll have more questions throughout the course. How to ask? Leave in comments below, so others can also benefit. We'll respond within 48 hours. Only ask specific to this Lesson.


Recorded 31 July, 2022


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