Lesson 68: Sanskrit for Beginners Course: P.Adj, Verb Class 2 & 9


Covers Pronominal adjectives, Verb Class 2, 9, and summary of all 10 Verb classes.

Source: Introduction to Sanskrit (4th Ed) – Thomas Egenes – Part Two

Session deals with: VOL2, L25, PG 134-142

Pronominal Adjectives:

  • Paradigm can be found on (Garden PG3 #36).
  • What are they?
    • Adjectives that decline like pronouns (Garden PG3 #37-39).
    • RULE: Neuter (Single, NOM/ACC)  ends with “m म्” and not “t त्“.
      • The blue words are exempt from this rule (see table below). Meaning their Neuter (Single, NOM/ACC) will end in “t त्
Pronominal Adjectives:  
adhara  अधर inferior (little value), lower (location) / west
antara  अन्तर other
anya / itara  अन्य / इतर
other (then…), different (from…), opposed to…
anyatara  अन्यतर either (of the two…), other (then…), different (from…)
apara  अपर inferior / other (eg: other then…)
avara  अवर inferior / posterior (situated behind) / west
dakṣiṇa  दक्षिण south
ekatama  एकतम one of many
ekatara  एकतर either (one of two OR one of many).
katama  कतम Who or which (of two/many)?
katara  कतर Who or which of the two?
para  पर higher, beyond, supreme
pūrva  पूर्व former, prior, previous, before / east
sarva  सर्व all, every
sva  स्व own
ubha / ubhaya  उभ / उभय both (used in dual only)
uttara  उत्तर subsequent (later, following, next [in time]) / north
  • Sentence Examples:
sarve bālāḥ 
सर्वे बालाः
All boys.
sarvāḥ kanyāḥ 
सर्वाः कन्याः
All girls.
saravāni phalāni 
सरवानि फलानि
All fruits
bālaḥ (anyasmāt gajāt) āgacchati 
बालः (अन्यस्मात् गजात्) आगच्छति
Boy comes from (the other elephant).
bālaḥ (sarvāṇi pustakāni) paṭhati 
बालः (सर्वाणि पुस्तकानि) पठति
Boy reads all the books.
anyasmin grāme  अन्यस्मिन् ग्रामे In the other village.
rāmaḥ kenāpi tasya (svam grāmam) gamiṣyati
रामः केनापि तस्य (स्वम् ग्रामम्) गमिष्यति
Rāma will go with anyone to his (own village).


  • Construction Formula:
    1. Single (strong forms):
      • guṇa of √root  declension
        • EG: √k कृ 2U > kar कर् > karti कर्ति  : He does/makes.
    2. Dual/Plural (weak forms):
      • √root  +  declension
        • EG: √kṛ कृ 2U > kṛmaḥ  कृमः  : We do/make.
  • Most common root is:  √as अस् 2P (is, exists).


  • Construction Formula:
    1. Single (strong forms):
      • √root  +  nā ना  +  declension
        • EG: √krī  क्री 9U > krīṇāti  क्रीणाति      :  He purchases.
    2. Dual/Plural (weak forms):
      • √root  nī  नी  + declension
        • EG: √krī  क्री 9U > krīṇīmaḥ  क्रीणीमः  :  We purchase.
  • Few roots in Class 9. Most common is:  √jñā ज्ञा 9U (know).


  • Construction formula for all 10 Verb classes found in VOL2, PG141. OR in Garden PG5, inside Present Tense. Verb class construction formula will be in pink.
  • Verb class names:
    • Class 1: bhvādiḥ भ्वादिः
    • Class 2: adādiḥ   अदादिः
    • Class 3: juhotyādiḥ  जुहोत्यादिः
    • Class 4: divādiḥ    दिवादिः
    • Class 5: svādiḥ      स्वादिः
    • Class 6: tudādiḥ    तुदादिः
    • Class 7: rudhādiḥ  रुधादिः
    • Class 8: tanādiḥ   तनादिः
    • Class 9: kryādiḥ    क्र्यादिः
    • Class 10: curādiḥ  चुरादिः


  • STEP 1:
    • Say out loud the paradigm on PG136 (or Garden PG3 #36), PG137-140. 
  • STEP 2:
    • PG143: Familiarize with vocab . Write out the word 1x (helps memory).
  • STEP 3:
    • PG144-147: Do all exercises in 6 & 7.
  • STEP 4:
    • PG130: Attempt to translate the verse.
      1. Break down sandhi.
      2. Write english definition top of each word.
      3. Translate.
      4. Compare your translation to author's.
  • STEP 5:
    • Read PG132-133. 


You'll have more questions throughout the course. How to ask? Leave in comments below, so others can also benefit. We'll respond within 48 hours. Only ask specific to this Lesson.


Recorded 12 May, 2022


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