Lesson 67: Sanskrit for Beginners Course: Future Passive Participle & Class 5


Covers future passive participle (also called gerundive) and how to construct verb class 5.

Source: Introduction to Sanskrit (4th Ed) – Thomas Egenes – Part Two

Session deals with: VOL2, L24, PG 116-123

Future Passive Participle (fpp)  / Gerundive:

  • Exactly like PPP, except implies command/suggestion of what is to be done in the future.
  • Comparison:
PPP (Present Passive Participle) FPP (Future Passive Participle)
Book was read by the boy.       

pustakam bālena paṭhitam
पुस्तकम् बालेन पठितम्

Book is to be read by the boy.       

pustakam bālena paṭhanīyam / paṭhitavyam / pāṭhyam
पुस्तकम् बालेन  पठनीयम् / पठितव्यम् / पाठ्यम्

Rāma united with Sīta.       

rāmaḥ sītayā yukta
रामः सीतया युक्तः

Rāma is to be united with Sīta.       

rāmaḥ sītayā yojanīya / yoktavya / yogya
रामः सीतया   योजनीयः / योक्तव्यः / योग्यः

The drink of nectar was drunk by me.       

aṃrtasya peyaḥ mayā ta
अंर्तस्य पेयः मया पीतम्

The drink of nectar is to be drunk by me.       

aṃrtasya peyaḥ mayā pānīya / tavya / peya
अंर्तस्य पेयः मया  पानीयः / पातव्यः / पेयः

  • ABOUT Future Passive Participles (also called Gerundive):
    • See it as COMMAND/FIRM SUGGESTION.  Meaning, can also be used like an Imperative.
      • Imperative = Do it NOW!
      • FPP              = Do it in the future!
    • Remember it as: “It is to be __ed/__en”. 
      • Other alternatives: It is to be / It will be / It should be / It must be obtained!
    • FPP declines same as the word it qualifies.
    • FPP can be used as ADJ/NOUN/VERB. In most cases, acts as a VERB.
    • RULES:
      1. If FPP is not qualifying any word, then decline it in: NEUTER (NOM, SING).
        • EG: It is to be protected by me! :  mayā goptavyam (Neuter, NOM, SING)
      2. Recasting: English sentence must be recast in FPP compatible format, before translating to Sanskrit.
        • EG: The king must lead the horse > recast > The horse is to be led by the king. (OR) Let the horse be led by the king!
    • guṇa(rarely vṛddhi)√root  +  -anīya अनीय  -tavya तव्य  -ya य    +  LRB1,2,3
    • Example:
ROOT anīya अनीय tavya तव्य ya
√kṛ  कृ guṇa:
vṛddhi: (rare case when it's not guṇa)


  • How to form stem?
    • Single (strong forms)           : √root + no नो
    • Dual/Plural (weak forms)   : √root + nu नु
  • Most Class 5 roots end in vowel.
  • Example Class 5 Paradigm:
NOTICE: Single = “no”. And Dual/Pl = “nu”. Don't worry about Ātmanepada endings for FPP's, because Class 5 roots are mostly Parasmaipada as seen above.


  • PG 118-120: Say all FPP words, out loud, for familiarity.
  • PG123: Go over vocab.
  • PG124: Do all exercises in 6 & 7.


You'll have more questions throughout the course. How to ask? Leave in comments below, so others can also benefit. We'll respond within 48 hours. Only ask specific to this Lesson.


Recorded 27 March, 2022


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