Lesson 64: Sanskrit for Beginners Course: Nouns ending in -in


CH23. Nouns ending in -in

Source: Introduction to Sanskrit (4th Ed) – Thomas Egenes – Part Two

Session deals with: VOL2, L23, PG 92-95

Suffix -in:

  • Just like mat/vat (L19), it indicates: Possessing THAT NOUN
  • Acts as ADJ (to describe another noun). But can also be used as a NOUN.
  • EG:
    • bhaga + vat = bhagavat   भगवत्     : Possessing glory / Glorious.
    • daṇḍa + in   = daṇḍin       दण्डिन्     : Possessing a stick (adj) / Recluse (noun)
  • COMPARING (mat-mant/vat-vant मत्-मन्त्/वत्-वन्त्)  AND  (-in  -इन्) :
English: mat-mant / vat-vant -in
Boys are (possessed of happiness). bālāḥ sukhavantaḥ santi
बालाः सुखवन्तः सन्ति
sukhinaḥ santi
सुखिनः सन्ति
  • FORMULA: noun_stem + in इन्  > decline per LRB26/27
  • Since FEM paradigm isn't included in LRB, here it is (or see here):


  • RULES:
    • Remove final vowel (if present). EG: aśva + in (sfix)  = aśvin.   अश्व + इन् = अश्विन्
    • If noun ends in -as -अस्, add vin/min  विन्/मिन्. EG:
      • tapas तपस्   = tapasvin  तपस्विन्      : possessing austerity
      • tejas  तेजस्   = tajasvin   तजस्विन्     : possessing light.
  • Example:
  Original Stem (-in, ADJ) mas. fem.rare neuter
Word: aśva अश्व aśvin  अश्विन् aśvī   अश्वी aśvinī  अश्विनी aśvi  अश्वि
Meaning: Horse
  1. Possessing a horse
  2. One who possesses a horse is called: Charioteer.
< same < same < same
Paradigm: LRB1   LRB26 LRB11 LRB27
  • More Examples:
Noun  (stem) Adj (stem) If turned into a noun, formula is:
One who possesses __, is likely a __.
* Below are all MAS/NOM.
daṇḍa   दण्ड (mas):     stick daṇḍin    दण्डिन्      :  Possessing a stick daṇḍī    दण्डी    : Recluse
manīṣā मनीषा (fem): wisdom manīṣin  मनीषिन्    : Possessing wisdom manīṣī  मनीषी  : Wise person
pakṣa   पक्ष (mas):      wing pakṣin     पक्षिन्        :  Possessing wings pakṣī     पक्षी     : Bird
kāma   काम (mas):   desire kāmin     कामिन्       :  Possessing desires kāmī      कामी   : Desirer
yoga    योग  (mas):    union yogin       योगिन्       Possessing yoga yogī       योगी     : Yogi  (mas, nom)
yoginī  योगिनी   : Yogi (fem, nom)
bala      बल  (n):         strength balin        बलिन्       Possessing strength balī        बली     : bull
śaśa     शश  (mas):     rabbit śaśin       शशिन्       Possessing a rabbit śaśī        शशी     : moon
hasta   हस्त (mas):    hand hastin    हस्तिन्       Possessing a hand (trunk) hastī      हस्ती    : elephant


  • PG 84: Cover English. Attempt to translate 2.51.
  • PG 86-89: Read at own pace.
  • PG 100: Study the vocab.
  • PG 101: Do exercises 6 a-h.


You'll have more questions throughout the course. How to ask? Leave in comments below, so others can also benefit. We'll respond within 48 hours. Only ask specific to this Lesson.


Recorded 27 Feb, 2022


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