Lesson 50: Sanskrit for Beginners Course: Semester 3 + Suffixes


New vocab. Suffixes (1) mat/vat (2) ya (3) tva/tā.

Source: Introduction to Sanskrit (4th Ed) – Thomas Egenes – Part Two

Welcome to start of Semester 3.

Semester 3 will need:


This session deals with: CH19, PG 2-10.

Suffixes: (sfix)

2 kinds of suffixes (pratyaya):

  1. Primary (kṛt pratyaya):
    • ABOUT: Attaches end of verb √root.
    • FORMULA: (Root vowel strengthens to guṇa grade) + (primary suffix).
    • EG:
      • √vid   विद्  (know)   >  ved   + a      = veda       : knowledge
      • √yuj   युज्  (join)      >  yog   + a      = yoga        : union
      • √dś   दृश्  (see)      >  darś + ana  = darśana  : seeing
  2. Secondary (taddhita pratyaya):
    • Where placed? End of noun stems.
    • Forms nouns or adj (in most cases).
    • First vowel in stem MAY (although doesn't have to) strengthen to vṛddhi grade.
      • EG when first vowel/syllable doesn't change to vṛddhi: sat > satya (n)  (would expect: sātya)
    • Below are the 3 major secondary suffixes we'll learn about…
    • mat/vat:
      • SUMMARY: Suffix which indicates: POSSESSING THAT THING / full of __ / filled with __.
        • EG: Possessing truth OR Full of truth OR Filled with truth. > Truthful.
      • In most cases, used as ADJ.
      • Formula: 
        • M/N:  noun stem + mat/vat  मत् / वत्     + LRB22/23
        • F:        noun stem + vatī          वती            + LRB11
      • RULE: When to use mat/vat?
        1. If stem ends in a/ā, use vat.
          • EG:
            • sukhavat     सुखवत्     : possessed of happiness > joyful.
            • dhanavat     धनवत्      : possessed of wealth       > wealthy.
        2. Other vowels/consonants, use mat/vat interchangeably.
          • EG: buddhimat   बुद्धिमत्     : full of intelligence > wise.
      • Examples:
Sītā is (full of happiness).
sītā       sukhavatī    asti
सीता    सुखवती   अस्ति
That house was (possessed of knowledge).
gṛham  jñānavat      āsīt
गृहम्   ज्ञानवत्   आसीत्
Śiva is (possessed of intelligence).
śivaḥ    buddhimān  asti
शिवः   बुद्धिमान्   अस्ति
Rāvana is (filled with anger).
rāvaṇaḥ  krodhavān   asti
रावणः  क्रोधवान्   अस्ति
Baby is (full of love).
mahālpapuruṣaḥ  snehavān  asti
महाल्पपुरुषः  स्नेहवान्  अस्ति
We worship (one possessing fortune).
fortunate, blessed, glorious
vayam  bhagavān    namāmaḥ
वयम्  भगवान्   नमामः
(Glorious sage) is wise. (bhagavān ṛṣiḥ)    buddhimān  asti
(भगवान् ऋषिः)   बुद्धिमान्  अस्ति
(Glorious army) is wise. (bhagavatī senā)  buddhimatī  asti
(भगवती सेना)  बुद्धिमती  अस्ति


    • ya:
      • SUMMARY: Suffix which indicates: Relating/belonging to, Deriving from.
      • Formula:  noun stem  +  ya  +  Decline like: nara, phala, senā
        • EG:   sat सत्   (existence)    >  satya   सत्य     : relating to existence > truth
      • RULE:
        1. If there is vowel end of stem, remove it before adding ‘ya‘.  EG:
          • danta  दन्त    (tooth)   >  dantya  दन्त्य    : relating to tooth   > dental
          • vīra       वीर  (hero)      >  vīrya      वीर्य     : relating to hero    > heroism
          • rājan   राजन्  (king)      >  rājya     राज्य    : relating to king     > kingdom
            • rāmarājya   रामराज्य     : Kingdom of Rāma (gen-tp.)
            • rāmarājye  रामराज्ये      : In the kingdom of Rāma (gen-tp.)
        2. Below examples also show the first vowel/syllable in stem undergoing vṛddhi strengthening:
          • śūra        शूर     (hero)            >  śaurya       शौर्य        (Heroism)
          • triguṇa  त्रिगुण   (3 gunas)      traiguṇya  त्रैगुण्य      (Relating to the 3 guṇās)
          • paṇḍita पण्डित   (wise man)   >  pāṇḍitya   पाण्डित्य    (cleverness,  skillfulness)
          • We also see vṛddhi strengthening in some Sanskrit words like:
            • putra   (son)          >  pautra  (mf[ī]n) (grandson)
            • janaka (a king)      >  jānakī               (his daughter Sītā)


    • tva/tā: 
      • SUMMARY: Suffix which indicates: STATE OF BEING __.
      • In 99% of cases, declines like LRB2.
      • EG:
        • State of being happy   > happiness.
        • State of being a man   > manhood.
        • State of being noble    > nobility.
      • Formula: noun stem + tva  -त्व  (n, rarely mas)   (or)  tā  -ता  (fem)
        • EG:
          • sat  सत्            (existence)    >  sattva   सत्त्व               (purity)
          • nitya              (eternal)          >  nityatva                    (eternity)
          • amṛta            (immortal)      >  amṛtatva                   (immortality)
          • śṛgāla शृगाल    (jackal)           >  śṛgālatva  शृगालत्व     (state of being a jackal)



  • Go over once: Spoken Sanskrit 19 – Getting Around.
  • Memorize Vocab on pg 14.
  • Say out loud paradigm on LRB 22-23. Also notice the endings.
  • Do following exercises on pg 15:
    • 5b, e, g, h
    • 6a, c, e, h


You'll have more questions throughout the course. How to ask? Leave in comments below, so others can also benefit. We'll respond within 48 hours. Only ask specific to this Lesson.


Recorded 31 Oct, 2021


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