Lesson 44: Sanskrit for Beginners Course: Ordinal & Cardinal Numbers


All verses revise. How to construct class 1, 10 verb. Sentences with Ordinal numbers. Rule about Cardinal numbers.

Source: Introduction to Sanskrit (4th Ed) – Thomas Egenes – Part One

This session deals with: General revision up to CH17.

Simple Future Vocabulary:

  • This page is same as on pg 222 (but in devanāgarī).

Ordinal Numbers Revision:

  • Rather use ordinal numbers (IE: first [prathama प्रथम], second [dvitīya द्वितीय]) — because declensions are easier then cardinals (IE: one [eka एक], two [dvi द्वि]).
  • Ordinals are treated as adj. Agrees with gender/case of the noun. Num remains singular.
  • If ordinal qualifies noun in:
    1. Masculine Gender:
      • Ordinal takes nara paradigm.
      • EG:
        • First man goes:       prathamaḥ naraḥ gacchati       प्रथमः नरः गच्छति
        • First two men go:   prathamaḥ narau gacchataḥ    प्रथमः नरौ गच्छतः
    2. Neuter Gender:
      • Ordinal takes phalam paradigm.
      • EG:
        • First fruit lives:                                       prathamamNOM phalamNOM vasati                प्रथमं फलं वसति 
        • Rāma speaks for his second family:  rāmaḥ dvitīyāyaDAT tasya kulāyaDAT vadati   रामः द्वितीयाय तस्य कुलाय वदति 
    3. Feminine Gender:
      • Ordinal takes either senā paradigmLRB3 (or) nadī paradigmLRB11.
        • How to know which?
          • See pg 158#6.  EG: prathama(mfn)takes senā  VS.  caturtha(mf[ī]n)takes nadī
      • EG:
        • Forth army comes:        caturthī senā āgacchati      चतुर्थी सेना आगच्छति
        • First armies conquer:   prathamā senāḥ jayanti      प्रथमा सेनाः जयन्ति
  • Class exercises:
    • The (fifth child) speaks to the (second man).
    • The (fourth king) smiles at the (second elephant).
    • The (first boy) kisses (cumbati) the (fifth girl).
    • The (third girl) plays (krīḍati) with the (forth giver).
    • The (first husband) marries (pariṇayati) his (first wife).

How to decline Cardinal Numbers:



  • Do exercises PG 226, 5 a-j.


You'll have more questions throughout the course. How to ask? Leave in comments below, so others can also benefit. We'll respond within 48 hours. Only ask specific to this Lesson.


Recorded 8 Aug, 2021


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