Lesson 43: Sanskrit for Beginners Course: Simple Future Tense


Simple future tense (-sya -iṣya).

Source: Introduction to Sanskrit (4th Ed) – Thomas Egenes – Part One

This session deals with: CH17, pg 220-224.

Simple Future Tense:

  • So far, we learned present indicative (gacchati गच्छति: He/she/it goes) — and imperfect (agacchat अगच्छत्: He/she/it went). Now we will learn: Simple Future Tense ( lṛṭ  लृट् ).
  • Basis is: He/she/it will VERB.
    • EG: He will go. We will protect. You will obtain the knowledge of medicine from Ayurveda.
  • Formula:


√root +

sya स्य / iṣya इष्य  +

P/Ā endings

Notes: Strengthen the LAST vowel in the root, to guṇa grade, per Garden 30. See video. May slightly change due to internal sandhi. Also, how to know whether to use sya OR iṣya? No rule. Memorize. Apply same endings from: gacchati गच्छति / bhāṣate भाषते
  • Example:
    • “He will overcome.”
      • Formula: √jī √जी 1P (to overcome) > vowel strengthened to guṇa: je जे + sya स्य + ti ति
      • Final: jeṣyati  जेष्यति
      • Notice the  s स्  changed to  ष् because of internal sandhi mentioned on PG 142, first table.
  • Sentence Examples:
    1. We will study (with determination).
      saṅkalpena paṭhiṣyāmaḥ
      सङ्कल्पेन पठिष्यामः
    2. When you ask the Lord (with sincerity), then you will receive that.
      yadā sāralyenan,inst parameśvaraṃ pṛcchasi tadā tat lapsyase
      यदा सारल्येन परमेश्वरं पृच्छसि तदा तत् लप्स्यसे
    3. If the guest will NOT come, then I will talk to her tomorrow (for an explanation).
      yadi atithiḥ na āgamiṣyati tadā ahaṃ tāṃ śvemas,loc prayojanāyan,dat  vadiṣyāmi
      यदि अतिथिः न आगमिष्यति तदा अहं तां श्वे प्रयोजनाय वदिष्यामि


  • Say out loud future tense words on PG 222-223.
  • Review new vocab on PG 224.
  • Do exercises PG 225, 4 a-j.


You'll have more questions throughout the course. How to ask? Leave in comments below, so others can also benefit. We'll respond within 48 hours. Only ask specific to this Lesson.


Recorded 1 Aug, 2021


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