Lesson 41: Sanskrit for Beginners Course: Compounds


Conclusion of CH16.

Source: Introduction to Sanskrit (4th Ed) – Thomas Egenes – Part One

This session deals with: CH16, pg 210-214.

Types of Compounds:

  1. Dvandva:
  2. Negative (turns word into antonym): nañ / samāsana
    • Formula: add ‘a‘ prefix to: adj, nouns, gerunds. EG:
      1. Nouns:
        • typical / atypical
        • Knowledge / ignorance: vidyā / avidyā   विद्या / विद्य
      2. Gerund:
        • Having come / having not come: gatvā / agatvā   गत्वा / गत्वा
      3. Compound:
        • Action / non-action: karmākarma कर्माकर्म > karma akarma  कर्म कर्म
    • Can NOT negate verbs (gerunds are exception).
      • Also NOTE: Above ‘ ‘ prefix is different from ‘ a ‘ prefix used in imperfect verbs (EG: agacchat  गच्छत्). They are totally UNRELATED.
    • If word begins with vowel (a, ā, i, ī, u, ū, e, o  अ, आ, इ, ई, उ, ऊ, ए, ओ):
      • Negate with ‘ an  अन् ‘ prefix. EG:
        • aerobic / anaerobic
        • Having spoken / having not spoken: uditvā / anuditvā  उदित्वा / अनुदित्वा.



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Recorded 11 July, 2021


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