Lesson 39: Sanskrit for Beginners Course: Dvandva-Itaretara Compound


Compound > Dvandva > Itaretara

Source: Introduction to Sanskrit (4th Ed) – Thomas Egenes – Part One

This session deals with: CH16, pg 210.

Dvandva Compound:

  • What is “dvandva”? It means: Two words. So two or more words associated, making up ONE whole word.
  • Dvandva has 2 types:
    1. Itaretra
      • What is “itaretara”? Study 3 examples below…
        • Example 1:
          • English:                        Man and son.
          • Ordinary:                    naraḥ putraḥ ca   नरः पुत्रः
          • Dvandva itaretara:  naraputrau  नरपुत्रौ
        • Example 2:
          • English:                          Man, son and sage.
          • Ordinary:                      naraḥ putraḥ muniḥ ca  नरः पुत्रः मुनिः
          • Dvandva itaretara:   naraputramunayaḥ  नरपुत्रमुनयः
        • Example 3:
          • English:                       From the sage and from the army.
          • Ordinary:                    muneḥ senāyāḥ ca  मुनेः सेनायाः
          • Dvandva itaretara: munisenābhyām  मुनिसेनाभ्याम्
      • What do you notice from above?
        1. All words (except the LAST word) — are written in STEM format.
        2. If 2 words — LAST word is DUAL. Example 1/3
        3. If more then 2 words — LAST word is PLURAL. Example 2
        4. LAST word is declined according to the paradigm of the LAST word. Example 1/2/3
      • DOUBT: Look at Example 2 above again.
        • How to know whether it's saying:
          • Men, sons and sages. OR…
          • Man, son and sage. OR…
          • Any other combo.
        • ANSWER: Context of story will tell. If story mentioned three men, one son and many sages  — then you'll know Example 2 is referring to that many.
      • SPECIAL RULE FOR WORDS ENDING IN -AN: (pg 212 #14)
        • If STEM ends in an (EG: jan, karman, ātman, nāman) — the word loses last letter “n“.
        • If LAST word ends in -an, then it ALWAYS takes nara pardigm (LRB 1).
        • Example:
          • Self and king: ātmarājau  आत्मराजौ 

            • Notice ātman has lost the “n“.
            • Notice LAST word takes nara paradigm.
    2. Samāhāra
      • Next session.



You'll have more questions throughout the course. How to ask? Leave in comments below, so others can also benefit. We'll respond within 48 hours. Only ask specific to this Lesson.


Recorded 27 June, 2021


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