Lesson 37: Sanskrit for Beginners Course: Nouns ending in -an (atman)


New verse (Knowledge of Kingship). New spoken sanskrit  (Daily routines). CH16: Sandhi ‘n' revision. New paradigm (-an). Strong/middle/weak form. Intro to “Generic Paradigm” on LRB x. New vocab.

Source: Introduction to Sanskrit (4th Ed) – Thomas Egenes – Part One

This session deals with: CH16, pg 204-209.

Paradigms with Strong/Middle/Weak STEM Changes:

  • In all paradigms before CH16 — the STEM remains same in entire paradigm.
    • EG: nara + yoḥ/m/au/aya. OR senā + yoḥ/m/yām.
  • However there are some paradigms whose STEM does not remain consistent. Meaning, the last letter of STEM changes in 3 different ways (strong/middle/weak forms).
    • These paradigms are slightly harder to memorize because STEM isn't consistent throughout.
    • Good news is, the template for strong/middle/weak forms is the same for every paradigm subject to this rule. Illustrated below…
Applies to all paradigms subject to strong/middle/weak stem changes.
  • Let's see above explanation for STEM ending in: -an -अन्
    1. STRONG forms. Stem ends in: ān आन्.
    2. MIDDLE forms. Stem ends in: a .
    3. WEAK forms. Stem ends in: n न्.
  • Let's illustrate the 3 STEM changes using word: rājan राजन् :
Why is it ñ ञ् instead of n न् ? Because of sandhi.

  • Some STEMS ending in -an -अन्  are IRREGULAR. Meaning their WEAK form has an extra “a ” added before “n न्“, as seen in blue color below…
Why is extra “a” added (unlike in rājan)? Because can NEVER have more then 2 consonants together (EG: atmn अत्म्न् ).


  • Go over Spoken Sanskrit 15 (Daily routines).
  • Recite new verse: Knowledge of Kingship.
  • Write out rājan/ātman paradigms in LRB 15/16.
  • Create 2 sentences (use different cases) using words: rājanātman (irregular), karman (irregular), nāman.
  • PG 214: Memorize new vocab.
  • Create 10 sentences using words on PG 214. Mix in recent verbs on PG 191/200.


You'll have more questions throughout the course. How to ask? Leave in comments below, so others can also benefit. We'll respond within 48 hours. Only ask specific to this Lesson.


Recorded 13 June, 2021


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