Lesson 36: Sanskrit for Beginners Course: Sandhi + Past Tense


Entire CH15. Sandhi rule for “m”. Common verb prefixes. Past tense (imperfect) for Ātmanepada verbs.

Source: Introduction to Sanskrit (4th Ed) – Thomas Egenes – Part One

This session deals with: CH15, pg 196-200.

Sandhi Rule for ‘m':

  • Two ways between word1m + word2.
    • Easy way: (Less common)
      • Common in classic/modern Sanskrit.
      • Change word1m to anusvāra + doesn't join with word2.
        • EG: naram gacchati (नरम्  गच्छति) > nara gacchati (नरं  गच्छति)
    • Hard way: (More common)
      • Common in Vedic Sanskrit. Majority of scriptures/literature.
      • Word1m changes to: ṇ ण्  ñ ञ्   /  ṇ ण्  n न्  + joins with word2.

        • How to know which “n” it is?
          • Step 1: Go to pg 9 of book.
          • Step 2: Find the first letter of word2.
          • Step 3: Notice which “n” in 5th column.
        • EG: naram gacchati नरम् गच्छति > naragacchati  नरङ्गच्छति

Verb Prefixes:

  • What is a verb prefix (vp)?
    • A short word which comes BEFORE verb/noun. They're often seen before verbs. Less commonly before nouns.
  • Formula:
    • vp + verb/noun
      • EG:
        • ud उद्  (up) + tiṣṭhati तिष्ठति (goes) = uttiṣṭhati  उत्तिष्ठति (He/she/it stands up).
        • Why does “ud” change to “ut“? Common sandhi joining rules apply.

Imperfect Middle:

  • See video.


  • Go over Spoken Sanskrit 14 (Positions).
  • Recite new verse: Early Morning Prayer
  • PG197: Write out verbal prefix, and 1 English definition you’re most attracted to.
  • PG199: Write out imperfect Middle paradigm.
  • PG200: Memorize new vocab before doing exercises.
  • PG201-203: All exercises.


You'll have more questions throughout the course. How to ask? Leave in comments below, so others can also benefit. We'll respond within 48 hours. Only ask specific to this Lesson.


Recorded 30 May, 2021


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