Lesson 34: Sanskrit for Beginners Course: Relative-Correlative (Who, By Which)


Relative-Correlative Pronouns (Whom/which).

Source: Introduction to Sanskrit (4th Ed) – Thomas Egenes – Part One

This session deals with: CH13, PG 173, #6-#11.

Relative-Correlative Pronouns:

  • What is relative-correlative pronoun?
    • We already know what a Pronoun is. They're found in LRB 32-34.
    • To turn a pronoun into relative pronoun version (Who, Which, What) — just replace first letter with “y“.
      • EG:
        • tayā या (with her/that ) > yayā या (with whom/which)
        • tena ते (with him/that) > yena ये (with whom/which)
      • Here's is example table for masculine pronouns (LRB  32). Same applies for Neuter/Fem (just replace first letter with “y“).
How to generate relative pronouns from above pronouns? Just replace first letter with “y“. Applies to MAS/N/FEM (LRB 32-34)
    • SIDE NOTE:
      • Regarding Masculine (NOM, SINGLE): saḥ सः
        1. Drops before all consonants/vowels, except before “a“.
          • EG: sa atra सः अत्र = so ‘tra सो ऽत्र
        2. Usually seen as: sa स
        3. Has sandhi when joining to vowels.
          • EG: sa api स अपि = sāpi सापि
      • Regarding Masculine (NOM, SINGLE): yaḥ यः
        • #1 & #2 don't apply above. Only #3 applies.
          • EG: yaḥ api  यः अपि = yo ‘pi  यो ऽपि
  • How to translate (English > Sanskrit):
    The man who goes is the king.
Style 1: *more common
Style 2:
  • Step 1: Isolate the relative clause.  All else is correlative clause.
    • I see the man who is going.
  • Step 2: Isolate the antecedent.
    • I see the man who is going.
  • Step 3: Put relative word first.
    • Which
  • Step 4: Put antecedent second.
    • What is Antecedent?
      • Word which correlative and relative clause refer back to. In short, it's the main object of discussion in the sentence.
    • Which man
  • Step 5: Fill in rest of relative clause.
    • Which man is going,
  • Step 6: Place correlative clause at end.
    • Which man is going, I see.
  • Step 7: Add correlative word before correlative clause.
    • What is correlative word?
      • An extra word you add, which is not in original English sentence. It's a pronoun which refers back to the antecedent.
    • Which man is going, him I see.
  • Step 8: Translate to Sanskrit.
    • yaḥ naraḥ gacchati tam paśyāmi
      यः  नरः  गच्छति  तं  पश्यामि
  • Step 1: Isolate the relative clause.  All else is correlative clause.
    • I see the man who is going.
  • Step 2: Isolate the antecedent.
    • I see the man who is going.
  • Step 3: Copy-paste relative word clause first in sentence.
    • Who is going,
  • Step 4: Put antecedent next.
    • Who is going, man
  • Step 5: Put correlative clause next.
    • Who is going, man I see.
  • Step 6: Insert correlative word before antecedent.
    • Who is going, that man I see.
  • Step 7: Translate to Sanskrit.
    • yaḥ gacchati tam naram paśyāmi
      यः  गच्छति  तं  नरं  पश्यामि
  • How to translate (Sanskrit > English):
    yaḥ naraḥ satyam paśyati tasmai avidyā chāyā iva bhavati
    यः  नरः  सत्यं  पश्यति  तस्मै अविद्या  छाया  इव  भवति

    • Step 1: Translate directly to English.
      • Which man sees the truth, for him ignorance like shadow is.
    • Step 2: Put antecedent first.
      • Man
    • Step 3: Put relative word clause next.
      • Man who sees the truth,
    • Step 4: Put correlative word clause last.
      • Man who sees the truth, for him ignorance is like a shadow.
    • Step 5 (Put proper English order): Correlative clause antecedent relative clause.
      • Ignorance is like a shadow for the man who sees the truth.
  • Sentences for Practice:
English: Sanskrit: (Only Style 1 is provided. For practice, you do Style 2)
  • Original: I speak to the girl who is going.
  • Style 1: Which girl goes, (to) her I speak to.
  • Style 2: Who is going, (to) that girl I speak to.
  • Style 1:
    kanyā gacchati tāṃ vadāmi
    या कन्या गच्छति तां वदामि
  • Original: The king sees the elephant on which I stand.
  • Style 1: On which elephant I stand, that king sees.
  • Style 2: On which I stand, that elephant king sees.
  • Style 1:
    yasmin gaje tiṣṭhāmi taṃ nṛpaḥ paśyati
    यस्मिन् गजे तिष्ठामि तं नृपः पश्यति
  • Original: The man who goes to the forest is the sage.
  • Style 1: Which man goes to the forest, he is the sage.
  • Style 2: Who goes to the forest, that man is the sage.
  • Style 1:
    yaḥ naraḥ vanam gacchati sa muniḥ bhavati
    यः नरः वनम् गच्छति मुनिः भवति
  • I see the army with whom Rāma goes.
  • Style 1: With which army Rāma goes, that I see.
  • Style 2: With whom Rāma goesthat army I see.
  • Style 1:
    senayā saha rāmaḥ gacchati tāṃ paśyāmi
    तया सेनया सह रामः गच्छति तां पश्यामि
  • Original: Rāma lives in the village in which Sītā lives.
  • Style 1: In which village Sītā lives, in that Rāma lives.
  • Style 2: In which Sītā lives, in that village Rāma lives.
  • Style 1:
    yasmin grāme sītā vasati tasmin rāmaḥ vasati
    यस्मिन् ग्रामे सीता वसति तस्मिन् रामः वसति
  • Original: You live with truth with which I live.
  • Style 1: With which truth I live, with that you live.
  • Style 2: With which I live, with that truth you live.
  • Style 1:
    satyena saha ahaṃ vasāmi tena saha tvaṃ vasasi
    येन सत्येन सह अहं वसामि तेन सह त्वं वससि
  • Original: The man who goes, is the king.
  • Style 1: Which man goes, he is the king.
  • Style 2: Who goes, that man is the king.
  • Style 1:
    yaḥ naraḥ gacchati sa nṛpaḥ asti
    यः नरः गच्छति नृपः अस्ति
    • NOTICE: The antecedent connects the correlative and relative clause.



You'll have more questions throughout the course. How to ask? Leave in comments below, so others can also benefit. We'll respond within 48 hours. Only ask specific to this Lesson.


Recorded 2 May, 2021


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