Lesson 32: Sanskrit for Beginners Course: Semester 2 + Relative-Correlative


Vowel strengthening. Sandhi revision. Nouns with stems ending in: ī  ई  (EG: nadī नदी). Relative-Correlative Clauses.

Source: Introduction to Sanskrit (4th Ed) – Thomas Egenes – Part One

This session deals with: CH13, pg 167-172

Vowel Strength:

  • What is it?
    • Vowel progression that happens in different grammar forms. EG: Swim, swam, swum
    • 2 things are noticed in above:
      1. Only vowel changes.
      2. It changes the meaning of the word.
  • Why should I know about this?
    • 2 Reasons:
      1. Confidence:
        • Helps you understand HOW roots are strengthened to form verbs/nouns.
      2. Word Meaning:
        • In Sanskrit, one doesn't have to learn entire dictionary of words. But only the roots (2000+). If can extract the root out of the word, then can approximate the word meaning.
    • Example that Illustrates both Reasons above: √dh > dhar(ma) > dhār(mika)      √धृ > धर्(म) > धार्(मिक)
      • Next time we see word “dharma” — we can recognize it came from √dh. If we know √dh means “to uphold, sustain, maintain” — we can approximate meaning of “dharma“.
      • Refer to pg 167, #2 for more examples.


  • Pg 167 #4-8 revises sandhi.
  • When NOT to apply sandhi: (pg 170, #9)
    • If word1 ends in i, ī, u, ū, e (इ, ई, उ, ऊ, ए) — and declines as dual ending (EG: phale, “2 fruit”).
      • EG:
        1. bāle āgacchataḥ  (बाले आगच्छतः)  (Two girls come)

          • Should be: bāla āgacchataḥ. But it's IMMUNE to sandhi (due to above rule) — thus REMAINS: bāle āgacchataḥ
        2. nagare ahaṃ paśyāmi (नगरे अहं पश्यामि)  (I see two cities)
          • REMAINS same because nagare is dual.
          • But what if we say “I see in the city” > nagare ahaṃ paśyāmi > Then we apply sandhi > nagare haṃ paśyāmi  (नगरे हं पश्यामि)
    • Don't apply sandhi on Vocative (when addressing something/someone).
      • EG: aho aśvaḥ tatra gacchati > Remains exactly the same (don't touch o).


  • Write out new paradigm on pg 171, or LRB 11.
  • Memorize new vocab with ” ī ” words on pg 178.
  • Produce 10 sentences using new words on pg 178,


You'll have more questions throughout the course. How to ask? Leave in comments below, so others can also benefit. We'll respond within 48 hours. Only ask specific to this Lesson.


Recorded 18 April, 2021


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