Lesson 31: Sanskrit for Beginners Course


Gerunds (past tense).

Source: Introduction to Sanskrit (4th Ed) – Thomas Egenes – Part One

This session deals with: CH12, pg 161-162.



  • Please learn the gerunds on page 162.
  • Indicates prior action. IE: Having seen… OR After seeing…
  • Doer of gerund, must also be doer of main verb.
  • Gerund remains same irrespective if main verb is past/present/future.
  • How to form? √root + tvā  त्वा  (or ya य  if verb has prefix)
    • EG:
      •                    √smṛ स्मृ    +   tvā  त्वा   =  smṛtvā  स्मृत्वा     =  Having remembered (OR) After remembering…
      • ā (prefix) +  √gam गम्  +    ya  य     =  āgamya  आगम्य  =  Having come  (OR)  After coming…
  • LOGIC:
    • All you do is take meaning of √root and turn it into past tenseEG: Meaning of √smṛ स्मृ  is “to remember”. Thus adding tvā त्वा, it becomes: Having remembered (OR) After remembering.
  • ORDER:
  • Examples:
    • (After coming from the house), the man speaks to his wife.
      (gṛhāt āgamya) naraḥ tasya bhāryām vadati
      (गृहात्  आगम्य)  नरः  तस्य  भार्याम्  वदति
    • (Having remembered the delicious food), the man eats it.
      (svādhiṣṭhamacc bhojanamacc smṛtvā)  naraḥ tatacc khādati
      (स्वाधिष्ठम्  भोजनम्  स्मृत्वा)
        नरः  तत्  खादति
    • (Having come to the village and having seen my friends), I am very happy.
      (grāmamacc āgamya   mama mitrāniacc dṛṣṭvā) aham atīva sukham asmi    (notice you don't need “ca“)
      (ग्रामम्  आगम्य  मम  मित्रानि  दृष्ट्वा)
        अहम्  अतीव  सुखम् अस्मि


  • We meet up again 18 April for Semester 2 (CH13-18). Use this opportunity to address weak spots. CH13+ is next level.
  • VERSE:
    • Deadline for Assignment 3 due: April 18 2021. Submit to yesvedanta@gmail.com. Can write or type devanāgarī. No Roman/IAST. 
    • NOTE: First memorize the gerunds on pg 162 and do exercises in CH12, before attempting this assignment.
    • Paradigm for “river” is in Little Red Book, pg 11.
  • BOOK:
    • Memorize gerunds on pg 162.
    • Memorize new vocab on pg 163.
    • Do CH12 exercises on pg 164-165.
    • This time isn't a break. It's an opportunity to address weak areas and improve them (paradigm, vocab, devanagari, unfinished exercises).


You'll have more questions throughout the course. How to ask? Leave in comments below, so others can also benefit. We'll respond within 48 hours. Only ask specific to this Lesson.

Recorded 21 March, 2021


  1. Lesson 12 exercises require proper mind bending 🙂 I have a question on the sandhi in Lesson 12, exercise 1d

    नृपो दशममतिथिं सेवते
    The king serves the 10th guest

    I am having trouble with splitting the sandhi for दशममतिथिं

    I came up with दशम् + अतिथिम् = दशमतिथिं . Cannot figure out how where the extra म comes from. What am I missing?

    1. 1d) __m + vowel__ = join. daśamam atithim

      PG 158 #6.

      Numbers are adjectives. Meaning they end exactly same as NOUN they qualify.

      daśamam(acc) atithim(acc) = daśamamatithiṃ
      दशमम् (acc) अतिथिम् (acc) = दशममतिथिं

  2. Hari Om Andre, we have difficulty trying to break the last few words in part one of assignment. malevastiti, puspanyasyanayam and vanadanayam,
    excuse the spelling (cant add dicritics in here.) from end, 1,4, 8 words. I can see iti in the first word, puspam (flower) in second and vane (forest) in last

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *