Lesson 30: Sanskrit for Beginners Course: Numbers (Numeral, Cardinal, Ordinal)


New verse. Revision. Chapter 12: numbers and nouns ending in ” i इ “.

Source: Introduction to Sanskrit (4th Ed) – Thomas Egenes – Part One

This session deals with: CH12, PG157-160.



  • Comparison: (see pg 158 for more)
    • Numeral: १, २, ३, etc…
    • Cardinal: one, two, three, etc… (eka, dvi, tri, etc…). More at: L20, L74.
    • Ordinal: first, second, third, etc… (prathama, dvitīya, tṛtīya, etc…). More at: L74.
  • In VOL 1, we will be mostly using Ordinals, because declensions are easier than Cardinals.
  • Ordinals are treated as adj (agrees with gender/case). They remain singular, meaning they never take on dual/plural endings, even if qualifying a dual/pl noun.
    • If Ordinal is qualifying a MAS/NEUTER noun then Ordinal ends in a अ(See table on pg158, #3)
      • EG:
        • First man goes: prathamaḥ naraḥ gacchati          प्रथमः नरः गच्छति
        • First two men go: prathamaḥ narau gacchataḥ   प्रथमः नरौ गच्छतः
    • If Ordinal is qualifying a FEM noun then Ordinal ends in ā आ / ī ई(See table on pg158, #6)
      • EG:
        • Forth army comes: caturthī senā āgacchati           चतुर्थी सेना आगच्छति
        • First child remembers: prathamā prajā smarati   प्रथमा प्रजा स्मरति
        • First armies conquer: prathamā senāḥ jayanti      प्रथमा सेनाः जयन्ति


  • Chant and familiarize with latest verse “On every mountain“.
  • Say out loud the “i इ” paradigms found in LRB pg 4-6. Write it out. And create 10 sentences using words:
    • MAS:
      • agni अग्नि  : fire
      • muni मुनि : sage
    • FEM:
      • kīrti कीर्ति : glory, fame
      • śruti श्रुति  : scripture
    • NEUTER:
      • śuci शुचि  : pure


You'll have more questions throughout the course. How to ask? Leave in comments below, so others can also benefit. We'll respond within 48 hours. Only ask specific to this Lesson.

Recorded 14 March, 2021


  1. I have more questions 🙂 Just want to make sure I am thinking through things correctly, and not trying to complicate things unnecessarily.

    Consider the following sentences (please correct any mistakes I might have made)

    I have your book for you
    अहं तव पुस्तकं तुभ्यम् अस्ति

    I have my book for you
    अहं मम पुस्तकं तुभ्यं अस्ति

    I have a book for you
    अहं पुस्तकं तुभ्यं अस्ति

    How would I say “I have a book”?

    The ownership of the book is not clear. This is from the group work me, Michael and Manish did in last class, and we concluded that it is “मम पुस्तकं अस्ति”. I am still not convinced about.Maybe I am over complicating this 🙂

    Another one!

    There are 2 boys and 2 girls
    बालौ च बाले सन्ति

    They remember their elephant
    ते (m,plu,nom) तेषां (m,plu,gen) गजं स्मरन्ति
    ताः (f,plu,nom) तासां (f,plu,gen) गजं स्मरन्ति

    I want to say either of the two is correct. But I am not sure.

    1. I have a book:

      Step 1: Ignore “I have”.
      Step 2: Book exists/is = pustakam(nom) asti
      Step 3: Add “mama” = mama pustakam(nom) asti

      I have your book for you = Follow above formula = mama (tava pustakam tubhyam asti)

      I have my book for you = mama (mama pustakam tubhyam asti) = Sounds weird!

      In this case use labhe (I obtain/possess/have): aham mama pustakam tubhyam labhe

      Yes, can use “labhe” for “I have/own/possess/obtain/acquire”.

      I have a book for you = mama pustakam tubhyam asti

      There are 2 boys and 2 girls: santi bālau bāle ca

      If sentence begins with “There is/are”, then begin sentence with “asti”.

      They remember (their elephant): te (teṣām gajam) smaranti

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