Lesson 28: Sanskrit for Beginners Course: 3rd Person Pronouns (saḥ, tat, sā)


Third person pronouns (Vol 1, pg 146-148).

Source: Introduction to Sanskrit (4th Ed) – Thomas Egenes – Part One


3rd Person Pronouns:

  • What are they?
    • The actual word for “He“, “She“, “It/That“. Meaning 3 new paradigms to be familiarized with.
    • Now we can say:
      • She goes to him.
      • He goes without them.
      • They serve her.
      • His son is their hero.
      • I come from him.
      • You remember her son.
      • That is my brother.
    • This paradigm will be used to address nouns which are masculine in nature.
Pg 146.
    • Rule: (pg 147, #5)
      • The word ” saḥ  सः (nom, sing) will always lose the — no matter what word follows it.  So always write it: sa   स
        • EG:
          • saḥ bālaḥ    = sa bālaḥ       स बालः
          • saḥ paśyati = sa paśyati    स पश्यति
      • Exception to above rule. If next word starts with “a“, then: (1) saḥ changes to: so  (2) Next word “a” changes to: /
        • EG:
          • saḥ atra        = so tra           सो त्र
          • saḥ anyatra = so nyatra    सो न्यत्र
    • Examples:
      • He goes                               : sa gacchati    स गच्छति
      • Those two go                     : tau gacchataḥ    तौ गच्छतः
      • They all go                         : te gacchanti    ते गच्छन्ति
      • He goes to him                  : sa tam gacchati    स तम् गच्छति
      • He goes with them(dual)  : sa tābhyām saha gacchati    स ताभ्याम् सह गच्छति
      • He goes with them(pl)      : sa taiḥ saha gacchati    स तैः सह गच्छति
      • In him, I see happiness   : tasmin aham sukham paśyāmi    तस्मिन् अहम् सुखम् पश्यामि
      • You come from them(pl)  : tvam tebhyaḥ āgacchasi     त्वम् तेभ्यः आगच्छसि
      • You come from him          : tvam tasmāt āgacchasi    त्वम् तस्मात् आगच्छसि
      • I obtain water from him  : aham tasmai jalam labhe    अहम् तस्मै जलम् लभे
    • Paradigm can also mean “that/those. In which case, it will come before the noun it qualifies. Applies to all 3 paradigms (mas, fem, neuter). (pg 149, #9, #10)
      • EG:

        • That man goes.                              :  sa naraḥ gacchati      स नरः गच्छति
        • That boy remembers the deer.   : sa bālaḥ mṛgam pṛcchati   स बालः मृगम् पृच्छति
        • Those(dual) heroes serve Rāma.  : tau vīrau rāmam sevete  तौ वीरौ रामम् सेवेते
        • Those(pl) heroes serve Rāma.      : te vīrāḥ rāmam sevante    ते वीराः रामम् सेवन्ते
        • That man obtains water (for that king).  : sa naraḥ (tasmai nṛpam) jalam labhate    स नरः (तस्मै नृपम्) जलम् लभते
        • Rāma speaks (with that man).          : rāmaḥ (tena nareṇa saha) vadati      रामः (तेन नरेण सह) वदति
        • Rāma speaks  (with those men).      : rāmaḥ (taiḥ naraiḥ saha) vadati    रामः (तैः नरैः सह) वदति
        • I go to village (for those warriors).  : aham (tebhyaḥabl vīrebyaḥabl) grāmam gacchāmi    अहम् (तेभ्यः वीरेब्यः) ग्रामम् गच्छामि
    • This paradigm will be used to address nouns which are neuter in nature.
Pg 147
    • Examples:
      • I love that                                                             : aham tatacc  snihyāmi    अहम् तत् स्निह्यामि
      • (That hymn) is beautiful                                    : (tatnom sūktamnom) sundaramnom asti    तत् सूक्तम् सुन्दरम् अस्ति
      • (Those two scriptures) are are very virtuous : (tenom śāstrenom) atīva dhārmike staḥ    ते शास्त्रे अतीव धार्मिके स्तः
      • I come (from those houses)          : aham (tebhyaḥ gṛhebhyaḥ) āgacchāmi    अहम् (तेभ्यः गृहेभ्यः) आगच्छामि
      • You are that                                      : tvam tat asi    त्वम् तत् असि
      • (That food) is delicious                  : (tatnom bhojanamnom) svādiṣṭhamnom asti    तत् भोजनम् स्वादिष्ठम् अस्ति
      • Army lives (in those two forests) : senā (tayoḥ vanayoḥ) vasati    सेना (तयोः वनयोः) वसति
    • This paradigm will be used to address nouns which are feminine in nature (eg: words on pg 150).
Pg 148
    • Examples:
      • She goes                           : gacchati
      • She goes (to her)            : tām gacchati
      • She goes (without her) : tayā vinā gacchati
      • She overcomes sorrow  : duḥkham jayate
      • You obtain the garland (from her) : tvam tasayāḥ mālām labhase
      • I see truth (in that child)                 : aham (tasyām prajāyām) paśyāmi
      • He sees truth (in those children)  : sa (tāsu prajāsu) paśyati
      • (That garland) is beautiful              : (mālā) sundarī asti
      • I adore the happiness (in her)         : aham tasyām sukhamacc snihyāmi


  • Write out sandhi table for: (replicate and say out loud for memory retention purposes)
    • vowels (pg 89)
    • visarga (pg 108)
    • t/n/m (pg 126)
  • Write out senā paradigm (pg 145). Say out loud.
  • Write out pronoun (pg 128-129): I / you.
  • Write out 3rd person pronouns pg 146-148.
  • Write 15 sentences using 3rd person pronouns (pg 146-148) + words on pg 140/150 + use asti paradigm (pg 131).


You'll have more questions throughout the course. How to ask? Leave in comments below, so others can also benefit. We'll respond within 48 hours. Only ask specific to this Lesson.

Recorded 14 Feb, 2021


  1. Hi Andre. This is one of the sentences in the class exercise.

    51. The crocodile does not eat a man (with a heart).

    I translated it as
    kumbīraḥ hṛdayena saha naram na khādati

    This got me thinking how would i indicate who has the heart, the man or the crocodile?

    “The crocodile does not eat a (man with a heart)” Vs “The (crocodile with a heart) does not eat a man”

    1. 1) kumbīraḥ hṛdayena saha naram na khādati > Correct.

      2) One way is to use tatpurusha compound (learned L18) when you combine words into one word: hṛdayakumbhīraḥ naram na khādati

      Of course now, have to guess which CASE is stem word “hṛdaya” referring to. Could mean:
      Crocodile OF the heart
      Crocodile WITH the heart
      Crocodile FROM the heart

      3) Second way is context will tell. If I say to you: Fill the fridge. You won’t fill it with cement, but food.

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