Lesson 26: Sanskrit for Beginners Course


Revision of paradigms.

Source: Introduction to Sanskrit (4th Ed) – Thomas Egenes – Part One



  • If word starts with a “t” and is short, it's likely a pronoun.
    • EG: te, tava, tvam, tat, tena, tasya, taih.
  • What is a declension? It means the ending which is attached to a word.
    • EG:
      • -aḥ     |  -au  | -āḥ
      • -āmi  |   -si   |  -ti
  • What is a paradigm? Word + declension. The final result in all combinations (all cases + sing, dual, pl).
    • EG: Entire “nara” paradigm.
  • Faster way to master Sanskrit when practicing Eng > Sanskrit Translation: (Direct method)
    • Step 1: Instead of being concerned of word order, translate in exact order as in Eng.
      • EG:
        • I go to your friend's house for the book.            > aham gacchāmi tava mitrasya gṛhamacc pustakāya  अहम् गच्छामि तव मित्रस्य गृहम् पुस्तकाय
        • Without the sun, there is no water and food.    > sūryena vinā, na sthaḥ jalamnom bhojanamnom ca    सूर्येन विना, न स्थः जलम् भोजनम् च
        • Rāma comes from the village in the morning.  > rāmaḥ āgacchati grāmāt prabhāte    रामः आगच्छति ग्रामात् प्रभाते
    • Step 2: Put it in right order, which mainly involves putting Verb last in sentence.
  • Sample conversion used in class:
    1. atīva dhārmikaḥ rāmaḥ kumbhīram jayati  अतीव धार्मिकः रामः कुम्भीरम् जयति
      • Very virtuous Rāma crocodile conquers.
    2. aho rāma, kim karoti iti kupitaḥ lakṣmanaḥ pṛcchati  अहो राम, किम् करोति इति कुपितः लक्ष्मनः पृच्छति
      • Hey Rama, what doing, Angry Lakshman asks.
    3. aham bhojanam āvābhyām karoti   अहम् भोजनम् आवाभ्याम् करोति
      • I food, for us, make.
    4. parantu, tvam mṛgeṣu snihyasi iti lakṣmanaḥ manyate   परन्तु, त्वम् मृगेषु स्निह्यसि इति लक्ष्मनः मन्यते
      • But you love animals, thinks Lakshman.
    5. śuddham, parantu, āvām bhojanam icchāvaḥ, evam api jalam āvābhyām labhase   शुद्धम्, परन्तु, आवाम् भोजनम् इच्छावः, एवम् अपि जलम् आवाभ्याम् लभसे
      • Correct, but we two food desire. Therefore also water, for us, you obtain.


  • Familiarize with new Spoken Sanskrit #9.
  • Can you recall the “nara” paradigm? If not, write it out (muscle memory). Because next session, the FEMININE paradigm is very different from MAS/N.
  • Familiarize with new verse, In Every Head, on pg 9.
  • Do exercises on:
    • Pg 133: #2, 3.


You'll have more questions throughout the course. How to ask? Leave in comments below, so others can also benefit. We'll respond within 48 hours. Only ask specific to this Lesson.


Recorded 31 Jan, 2021


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