Lesson 25: Sanskrit for Beginners Course


New verse. Tvam (you) paradigm. Adjectives. Asti (is) paradigm. “I love you”.

Source: Introduction to Sanskrit (4th Ed) – Thomas Egenes – Part One


Highlights: (Pg 129-131)

  • Adjectives:
    1. Comes before noun, just like in English. EG: Beautiful boy > sundaraḥ bālaḥ
    2. Has exact same ending as the noun it qualifies. EG:
      • Beautiful boys                                                                      > sundarāḥ bālāḥ.
      • From two beautiful houses                                               > sundarābhyām gṛhābhyām
      • The two peaceful men come (for the beautiful fruit) > śāntau narau (sundarāya phalāya) āgacchataḥ
      • Man remembers the (angry boy)                                   > naraḥ (kupitam bālam) smarati
    3. If ADJ is used with GENITIVE, then it still goes before GEN. EG:
      • Beautiful hero (of the scriptures) speaks about truth   > sundaraḥ (sāstrānām) vīraḥ satyam bhāṣate
      • Hero (of the beautiful scriptures) speaks about truth   > (sundarānām śāstrānām) vīraḥ satyam bhāṣate
  • Verb asti (He/she/it is):
    • Most common verb.
    • Means: He-she-it is/areEG:
      • That man is a hero        > tat naraḥ vīraḥ asti
      • You are happy                > tvam sukhamnom asi/bhavasi
      • Books are (our friend)  > pustakāni (asmākam mitramacc) santi
    • If sentence starts with “asti”, then means: There is…  (NOTE: “There” doesn't refer to location word “Over there“. But as in “It exists“).
      • EG: There is an (angry horse) (in your house) > asti (kupitaḥ aśvaḥ) (tava gṛhe)
    • If “asti” is not found at end of the sentence, then assume it's end of the sentence.
      • EG: rāmaḥ nṛpaḥ > Rāma is the king.
      • In rare cases, when asti is missing, the two NOMINATIVES will exchange order.
        • EG: nṛpaḥ rāmaḥ > Rāma is the king.
          • How do you know it's not “King is Rāma”? Because (1) asti missing gives it away (2) context will tell which makes more sense.
  • How to say ‘I love you' :
    • Verb for “love / having affection towards / fixating the mind with devotion upon” is: snihyati (He/she/it loves). EG:
      • Rāma loves           > rāmaḥ snihyati
      • Rāma loves truth > rāmaḥ satye snihyati
        • NOTICE:
          • The object that is loved, is in LOC. This isn't always true, as it's also found in ACC in literature. Throughout this course, stick with LOC.
          • Perhaps LOC makes sense, because your love is IN something.
      • I love               > aham snihyāmi
      • I love you       > aham tvayiloc snihyāmi   /  aham tvāmacc snihyāmi  (Less preferred)
      • I love water    > aham jaleloc  snihyāmi
      • You love         > tvam snihyasi
      • You love me  > tvam mayiloc  snihyasi
      • You have affection (for Sanskrit)  > tvam samskṛtāya snihyasi
      • You are devoted to virtuous knowledge of immortality > tvam dhārmikam amṛtasya jñānam snihyasi  त्वम्  धार्मिकम्  अमृतस्य  ज्ञानम्  स्निह्यसि


  • Familiarize with new verse, In Every Head, on pg 9.
  • Do exercises on:
    • Pg 133: #1


You'll have more questions throughout the course. How to ask? Leave in comments below, so others can also benefit. We'll respond within 48 hours. Only ask specific to this Lesson.


Recorded 24 Jan, 2021



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