Lesson 23: Sanskrit for Beginners Course: Sandhi + Pronouns (aham)


Sandhi for ‘t', and first person pronouns.

Source: Introduction to Sanskrit (4th Ed) – Thomas Egenes – Part One


Sandhi for ‘t':

Focus is on ‘t'
  • Let's look at examples of this situation: word1t + _word2.

  • Exceptions:
    • In above sandhi table, you'll see number 3/4.
      • 3: The first letter of word2 MUST change to “dh“.
        • EG: rāmāt hastaḥ = rāmāddhastaḥ    रामात् हस्तः = रामाद्धस्तः
      • 4: The first letter of word2 MUST change to “ch“.
        • EG: rāmāt śiṣyaḥ = rāmācchiṣyaḥ     रामात् शिष्यः = रामाच्छिष्यः

Grammar: 1st Person Pronouns:

  • Refer to table on pg 128. First say out loud each word, and write it down for memory. Only then see below examples.
  • If starting sentence with NOM pronoun (sing, dual, pl) — then it MUST take on corresponding verb, 1st person (sing, dual, pl). EG:
Single Dual Plural
aham gacchāmi
(I go)
āvām gacchāvaḥ
(We two go)
vayam gacchāmaḥ
(We all go)
ahamnom mamagen gṛhamacc gacchāmi
(I go to my house)
āvāmnom mamagen gṛhamacc gacchāvaḥ
(We two go to my house)
vayamnom mamagen gṛhamacc gacchāmaḥ
(We all go)
aham seve
(I serve)
āvām sevāvahe
(We two serve)
vayam sevāmahe
(We all serve)
  • More usage examples:
English Sanskrit:
GEN: Son serves me. putraḥ māmacc  sevate
GEN: My son serves me. mama putraḥ māmacc sevate
GEN: Ourdual house is for usdual. āvayoḥgen.dual.  gṛhamnom  āvābhyāmdat.dual.  bhavati
ABL: Friend obtains water from me. mitramnom  matabl  jalamacc  labhate
ABL: My friend obtains water from uspl. mama mitramnom asmatabl.pl. jalamacc  labhate
INST: There is no knowledge without us. asmābhiḥ vināinst.pl. jñānamnom na bhavati
LOC: In me, there is happiness. mayiloc  sukhamnom  bhavati
NOM: We two go. āvām gacchāvaḥ
NOM: We all go to the men. vayam narān gacchāmaḥ
ACC: He asks me. mām pṛcchati
ACC: She sees us two. āvām paśyati
ACC: The two boys remember us (pl). bālau asmān smarataḥ
INST: She goes with me. mayā saha gacchati
INST: The horse is coming with us (dual). aśvaḥ āvābhyām saha agacchati
INST: Without us (pl), there is no class. asmābhiḥ vinā vargaḥ na bhavati
DAT: He obtains a fruit for me. phalamacc mahayam labhate
GEN: Of me, there is wellness. mama kuśalamnom asti / bhavati
GEN: We two have a son. āvayoḥ putraḥ bhavati
GEN: We (pl) have a house. asmākam gṛhamnom bhavati
LOC: On us (pl), there is an elephant. asmāsu gajaḥ bhavati
  • NOTICE: Some words like “mamagen also has alternative “me“.
    • General rule: Stick to words OUTSIDE brackets. Although must be familiar with words inside brackets because they'll be used in exercises.


  • Create some ‘t' sandhi examples using English words. EG: chairt + great
  • Get familiar with 1st person pronouns on pg 128. (Get familiar means: say word out loud, write it down. Helps memory retention.)
  • Learn new vocab on pg 113.
  • Do exercises on pg 114: 1, 2, 3.


You'll have more questions throughout the course. How to ask? Leave in comments below, so others can also benefit. We'll respond within 48 hours. Only ask specific to this Lesson.

Recorded 10 Jan, 2021

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