Lesson 2: Sanskrit for Beginners Course: Single & Dual Verb Endings
For the not-so busy:

For the busy:


What's covered: First 25 consonants, divided into 5 categories according to articulation. Remaining vowels (ṛ, ṝ, ḷ, e, ai, o, au) in devanāgarī. Dual verbs (we two go, you two go, those two go). Word for where (kutra bhavasi: where are you?). Three new verbs (is/become, live, remember).

Source: Introduction to Sanskrit (4th Ed) – Thomas Egenes – Part One


  • SINGLE: VERBami, si, ti. (I, You, He/she/it)
  • DUEL: VERBavaḥ, thaḥ, taḥ. (We two, You two, Those/them two)
  • What is aspirated consonant? Puff of air. EG: pha.
  • What is voiced consonant? Throat vibrating. EG: ga.
  • Sandhi:
    • What does sandhi involve? Combining last letter of word-1 and first letter of word-2. EG: gaccha + ami = gacchāmi.
    • Why is sandhi important? Because 99% of Sanskrit literature is sandhi-ed.
    • Purpose of sandhi? To smoothen the articulation between word-1 and word-2. EG: Say “A apple“. Effort! Now say, “An apple“. Smooth!


  1. Verse: On Ornaments
    • Memorize? First let's define this word.
      • Memorization is not an effortful process. It is not “I have to remember because I've been told to!”.
      • Memorization is a natural by-product of spending time on a subject matter which you find interesting.
        • EG: Passionate chef doesn't memorize ingredients/qty/etc by effort, but by mere interest in cooking. It happens in time.
      • Hence it's up to student how wish to “memorize” the verses. Either by painful effort OR because one happens to enjoy the verses in the shower, while driving, cooking, waiting, etc…
    • In short: Student is not to memorize by force. Honor your own pace. Fun and slow is better then mechanical and fast.
  2. Spoken Sanskrit: Week 2Classroom slide.
  3. Devanāgarī practice sheet for week 2. (ṛ, ṝ, ḷ, e, ai, o, au).
  4. Learn to properly articulate all 25 consonants. Keep hand on throat for familiarity which are voiced/unvoiced.
    • For now, remembering 5 rows is not crucial.
  5. Memorize DUEL VERB ENDINGS: gaccha + avaḥ, gaccha + thaḥ, gaccha + taḥ. (We two go, You two go, Those two go)
  6. Memorize verbs: gacchati, pṛcchati, bhavati, vasati, smarati.
  7. Finish exercises in book.
    • Glance quickly over sandhi version in brackets. It'll help familiarize brain with sandhi changes occurring between word-1 and word-2.


You'll have more questions throughout the course. How to ask? Leave in comments below, so others can also benefit. I will respond in 72 hours. Only ask specific to Lesson.

Recorded 15 March, 2020


  1. Hi Andre,

    Is it possible to get the answers to the in class exercise number 2, starting at 49 mins?



  2. dugdham gacchati puṣpam pṛcchāmi ca

    dugdham gacchati: He goes to the milk (can also mean: “The milk goes”, depending on NOM/ACC case, which we’ll intro in L4).
    puṣpam pṛcchāmi ca: and I ask the flower.

  3. Lesson 2: Sanskrit for beginners:
    The verse on ornaments: First line says: hastya bhushanam daanam. Why is the second line not written in the same fashion as kanthasya bhushanam satyam? Instead it is written as Satyam kanthasya bhushanam.

    Are both versions right? The reason for difference?

    Thank you in advance

    1. hastasya bhūṣaṇam dānam: Hand’s ornament is giving.
      satyam kaṇṭhasya bhūṣaṇam: Throat’s ornament is truth.

      Two different sentences.

  4. Andre, I love your classes, just doing it offline at my own pace. COuld you please let me know where is this Vs from: hastya bhushanam daanam. ?

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