Lesson 17: Sanskrit for Beginners Course: Neuter Words + Sandhi Rules


Revision of nara paradigm. Chapter 8 of book: (1) Vowel Sandhi (2) Neuter nouns “phala” (3) New vocab.

Source: Introduction to Sanskrit (4th Ed) – Thomas Egenes – Part One



    • What is Sandhi? Sound modification between words. For sake of sounding pleasant to the ear (since Sanskrit is a oral language mainly).
    • How does Sandhi work? Last letter of word1 changes.

  • 2 types of Sandhi:
      • Sandhi between two words.
      • EG: rāma bāla ca  रामः बालः च = rāmo bālaśca  रामो बालश्च
      • Sandhi within a word itself.
      • EG: rāmea रामेण ( r र् turns n न् into ṇ ण् ), compared to bālena (no internal sandhi because preceding ‘r‘ is not present).
  • Only apply sandhi 1x. EG:
    • Original                               : rāmaḥ bālaḥ ca gacchataḥ iti  रामः बालः च गच्छतः इति
    • Sandhi 1x (correct 🙂)     : rāmo bālaśca gacchata iti        रामो बालश्च गच्छत इति (stop here, don't apply sandhi again)
    • Sandhi 2x (incorrect 🙁) : rāmo bālaśca gacchateti           रामो बालश्च गच्छतेति
  • 2 Rules when NOT to apply sandhi no matter what:
    1. Do not apply sandhi when word1 ends in (i, ī, u, ū, e), and it declines in dual.
      • EG: bāle āgacchataḥ (bālā is girl. bāle is two girls). Should be per our vowel chart (pg 89) > bāla āgacchataḥ. But it's safe. Thus remains: bāle āgacchataḥ
    2. Do not apply sandhi for Vocative cases.
      • EG: putra aśvam gacchasi. Should be per our vowel chart (pg 89) > putrāśva gacchasi. But it's safe. Thus remains:  putra aśvam gacchasi  पुत्र अश्वम् गच्छसि (Oh son! You go to the horse)
  • Another Sandhi rule regarding ‘n‘:
    • Regarding Pg 94 (#1):
      • ṛ ऋ or r र changes following n न to ṇ ण.
        • EG: rāmeरामेण
      • However, if there is a t त् between, then n न् remains immune.
        • EG: amtānअमृतानि  (notice n न् didn't change to ण्)

Neuter Paradigm for nouns ending in ‘a' (phala):

  • We've done paradigm for all words ending in ‘a‘, which are in masculine. On pg 92, is paradigm for all words ending in ‘a‘, which are in neuter (neither masculine, nor feminine).
  • Masculine VS. Neuter (for words ending in ‘a'):
    • All declensions (endings) are same. Except NOM/ACC/VOC.


  • Exercises on Pg 79:

    • 5 b-f
    • 6 b-f
    • 7 b-f
    • 8 (6-12)


You'll have more questions throughout the course. How to ask? Leave in comments below, so others can also benefit. We'll respond within 48 hours. Only ask specific to this Lesson.

Recorded 15 Nov, 2020


  1. Updated version of my previous question (pl ignore previous post) :
    I would appreciate the explanation on how /when / the logic when using the word bhavthi when translating from english to sanskrit. More than often I miss the word when translating.

    For example
    sūryaḥ candraḥ na bhvati -> is the word used to say ‘is not’ as opposed to using ‘na’ which says ‘not’
    kutra narāḥ bhavnthi -> is the word used to say ‘where are the’ as opposed to using ‘kutra’ which says ‘where’

    1. To help understand, let’s go with direct style (something we relate to, where there’s no change in order between Eng/San):

      Where is > kutra bhavati
      Where is the man > kutra bhavati naraḥ
      Where is the man not > kutra bhavati naraḥ na
      Where is the man with the boy > kutra bhavati naraḥ bālāya
      Where are the two boys > kutra bhavataḥ bālau
      Where is the deer > kutra bhavati mrgaḥ
      Where is the deer not > kutra bhavati mrgaḥ na
      Sun is not the moon > sūryaḥ bhavati na candraḥ > sūryaḥ bhavati candraḥ na > sūryaḥ candraḥ na bhavati

      Just put “bhavati/bhavasi” word last. All else remains same. That’s the only logic.

    1. kutra bālena saha naraḥ bhavati (OR) your version also ok.

      Also, I encourage to start typing in IAST asap because book demands it. Can do via software: yesvedanta.com/keyswap

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