Lesson 15: Sanskrit for Beginners Course: Locative + Vocative Cases


Last 2 cases of ‘nara' paradigm that covers 40% of all Sanskrit words: Locative (in/on), Vocative (addressing something).

Source: Introduction to Sanskrit (4th Ed) – Thomas Egenes – Part One



  • CASE: Locative

    • Purpose:
      • Express location: In/on.
    • Formula:
      • stem + e
    • Paradigm:
gaja + e
On the elephant
gaja + yoḥ
gajayoḥ  (गजयोः)
On two elephants
gaja + eṣu
gajeṣu  (गजेषु)
On many elephants
    • Examples:
I live in the city nagare vasāmi
I stand on the horse aśve tiṣṭhāmi  (अश्वे तिष्ठामि)
She speaks in the village grāme vadati
Man lives in the village grāme naraḥ vasati
Water is in the cup caṣake jalamnom bhavati
There is a leaf in the water jale parṇamnom bhavati
Beloved is everywhere in my heart priyaḥ mama hṛdaye sarvatra bhavati  (प्रियः मम हृदये सर्वत्र भवति)
Garment is on Rāma rāme vastramnom asti/bhavati
Where do I stand on the elephant? kutra gaje tiṣṭhāmi
  • CASE: Vocative

    • Purpose:
      • Used to call out / address a person or thing.
      • O Rāma, O son, O wife, O husband…
    • Paradigm:
      • Same as NOM, except singular is in STEM form. EG: Instead of “rāmaḥ”, it's “rāma”.
    • Examples:
rāma kutra tat bālaḥ gacchati  (राम कुत्र तत् बालः गच्छति) O Rāma! Where is that boy going?
mama putra kadā khādasi na vadasi  (मम पुत्र कदा खादसि न वदसि) O my son! When you eat, you don't speak.


  1. Exercises on:
    • Pg 64, #7 (a-j).
    • Pg 76, #1. Write out the devanāgarī and convert to IAST with diacritics. EG: अष्टाङ्ग  >  aṣṭāṅga
      • Where to find devanāgarī to IAST diacritics comparison? Pg 44.
  2. Learn new vocab on Pg 75.
  3. For those still getting familiar with devanāgarī, extra homework:
    • Write out all letters on pg 68-71 to help familiarize brain. They're called “Tricky combinations”.


You'll have more questions throughout the course. How to ask? Leave in comments below, so others can also benefit. We'll respond within 48 hours. Only ask specific to this Lesson.

Recorded 1 Nov, 2020


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