Lesson 12: Sanskrit for Beginners Course: Dative Case


New verse. New case: dative (for the man). Alphabet revision.

Source: Introduction to Sanskrit (4th Ed) – Thomas Egenes – Part One



  • DATIVE declension:
    • What is it?
      • Expresses “for SOMETHING“, or “to SOMETHING“.
      • Conveys PURPOSE, INTENTION or AGENDA for doing the action.
        • EG: Student goes to teacher for knowledge. Man goes to work for/to earn money. I sleep to rest. We learn to grow.
    • How to form?
      • STEMaya अय
      • EG:
        • Men stand for Rāma                       : narāḥ rāmāya tiṣṭhanti                 नराः  रामाय  तिष्ठन्ति  |
        • Boy goes to the man for the deer : bālaḥ mṛgāya naram gacchati     बालः  मृगाय  नरं गच्छति  |
  • General order: NOM INST DAT ACC VERB
    • EG: 
      • rāmo (vīreṇa saha bālāya) pustakam paṭhati         रामो (वीरेण सह बालाय) पुस्तकं पठति  |
        Rāma reads the book (with the hero for the boy).       
  • Paradigm:
Single: Dual: Plural:
nara + aya अय
narāya : For the man
nara + abhyām अभ्याम्
narābhyām : For two men
nara + ebhyaḥ  एभ्यः
narebhyaḥ : For men (pl)


  1. Memorize newest verse: Ornament of Stars
  2. Complete homework on pg 47 of book: 4i, 5i to end, 6, 7.

    • Sanskrit to English process for each exercise.

Interactive Sanskrit Fun:


You'll have more questions throughout the course. How to ask? Leave in comments below, so others can also benefit. We'll respond within 48 hours. Only ask specific to this Lesson.

Recorded 11 Oct, 2020


  1. Hi Andre
    sorry to bother you .

    The elephants are there with the horses
    gajah ashvaih saha tatra bhavanti .
    is this correct ?? or you want me to go with what’s in the answer section

  2. Hi Andre, can you please walk through the steps of translating the following (again): Thanks
    (6f) rāmaḥ aśvam putram pṛcchati Q: The relationship between aśvam & putram and the order

    (6i) mṛgaiḥ aśvaiḥ ca saha gajaḥ vasati Q: what is ending iḥ Q: Elephant live with dear & horse or deer and horse live with elephant


    1. Gladly.

      6f) rāmaḥ aśvam putram pṛcchati

      Ignore aśvam. Final: rāmaḥ putram pṛcchati: Rāma asks the son.

      Add aśvam. Final: rāmaḥ aśvam putram pṛcchati: Rāma asks the son ABOUT THE HORSE.

      Conclusion: When two ACC are next two each other, and verb “pṛccha/vada” is used, then word FURTHEST AWAY FROM THE VERB is “about the ___”.

      6i) mṛgaiḥ aśvaiḥ ca saha gajaḥ vasati

      a) Ending -iḥ = INST, PL (instrumental, plural). See book pg 53 for table of all endings.

      b) Is it (1) Elephant live with dear & horse (OR) (2) Deer and horse live with elephant.

      Both are correct. Because they both make sense. Attitude: Is my translation making sense?

      It may not match books order perfectly.

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