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1) “Master your mind, and you master the world.” Explain this quotation with reference to its context.

Rumi gracefully described Life, Truth, the World and it's extravagant beauty, mystery and depth – through his poems.

Such a man's Mind, whose words nurtured millions of hearts, is both clear and pure. Only can such an unbiased emotional Mind, and a sharp-virtuous Intellect – touch so many life's.

Yet simultaneously…

The pessimist next door, living in the same neighborhood as Rumi, talks about Life and the World as a dark night of the soul.

“A life is filled with misfortunes and tragedies”, says the pessimist.

Such a man-woman's Mind and Intellect, by reasoning and logic, can not possibly be sufficiently clear nor pure. But rather tilted towards gloomy, dull and distorted predisposition – as consequence of it's own filters-conditions (vāsana; rāga-dveṣa).

Eitherway, both in Rumi's and pessimist's case, they both have a Mind-Intellect and Likes-Dislikes (Subtle Body & Causal Body). Hence the makeup of their Mind-Intellect are projected the onto the World, hence their experiencING is described accordingly.

Above example is the essence of Svāmī Vivekānanda's statement: “Master your mind, and you master the world”.

Another way to explain the implied meaning and paramount importance of this quote is to inquire…

Find and pick an object in your room that has some emotional appeal. Like picture of your parents/spouse/friend. Look at it now. Where is the exeriencING of that object appearing? Is it “over there”, or is it IN YOU?

Of course it's in you. The experience (including your judgement about it, thought, feeling) is entirely in you.

Next part of this inquiry is…

Is it not reasonable to assume that your judgements, thoughts and feelings about this object… originate or are seen through the eyes of your own Mind-Intellect's filters?

Yes. It's certainly not seen through Dali Lama's Mind-Intellect. 😀

Therefore this means,  your experience about the World can be enhanced by MASTERING YOUR INNER MIND. And not by beautification of the External World .

What does Enhancing mean?

It does NOT mean, adding to (like acquiring new beliefs about the World). But removing/undoing or purifying it's PRESENT projections/beliefs or distortions.

This purification (sattva) allows one to appreciate the depth of Vedānta; Brahman. Or Self-Knowledge.

Just like a healthy digestion (inner world) allows one to appreciate a sumptuous meal (outer world).

Hence the outer is entirely dependent on the quality-texture of the inner.


2) Write a note on each of the three fundamental codes of discipline prescribed for the physical, mental, and intellectual personalities of human beings.

A human being (Jiva) comes into this world without an instruction-manual. This usually accounts (unless surrounded by a Conscious community) for life of Spiritual neglect. Meaning, one has no higher ideals to aspire to – other then depending on worldly success and sensual stimulation.

This is why Religion/Spirituality exists. To fill a vital need which Science cannot.

Despite Religions or various creeds having different values or disciplines contained with their instruction-manual (Scripture; Śāstra)… they all fundamentally originate from these 3 disciplines:


1. Brahmacharya

This means: One who reveals in contemplation of ‘Brahman' (Self, Absolute Truth).

This discipline is meant to educate one living a life of self-control to help one regulate the natural tendency of excessive Physical-Mental-Intellectual indulgence.

It is not meant to deny our right to our enjoyment (kāma) of any kind, nor does it mean abstinence from sex (as often mistakenly misinterpreted). But simply: Intelligent self-control from excessive indulgence.

Three example violations of Brahmacharya are: (notice they all dominate the victim)

  1. Over-eating: Leading to physical overweight, mental dullness, fatigue.
  2. Promiscuity: Leading to sense-pleasure immunity, chitta (noise), stress, infidelity.
  3. Alcoholism: Leading to health problems, unpleasant social behavior, dull (tamas) Mind.

Therefore, this discipline exists because it recognizes our attraction and weakness to endlessly satisfy our sense instruments/organs (eg; touch demands softness, ears demand soothing sounds, eyes demand flamboyancy, etc).

And it's purpose is to help us regain control of our craving senses. How?

Different Religions prescribe different means. For context of Vedānta, we have timeless and proven practice such as Karma Yoga (Kṛṣṇa teaches Arjuna in B.Gītā, chapters 3, 4, 5, 18).

One immediate way to regain control of our desire for sensual indulgence is to deliberately  REDIRECT your focus AWAY FROM the feeling of craving, TO the Awareness of that feeling. 

Ask “Who is AWARE of this Craving?”. I AM.

“If I wasn't AWARE right now, could this Craving be experienced or KNOWN?”. NO.

“Then the craving depends on ME. And I (Awareness) does not depend on the Craving”.

Meaning, we're turning our attention inwards to Self/Brahman and contemplating on that alone.

“brahmani charanti iti brahmacharya” – brahmacharya is maintained by one whose mind is constantly engaged in the contemplation of Truth.


2. ahiṁsā

This is Universal-ethical value is also called “Samanya Dharma“.

Meaning this value (1) does not change over time, and (2) it's inbuilt at “time” of creation.

What's more, it's applicable to all Jiva's (living entities, including animals).

ahiṁsā operates on this directly experienced phenomena and logic…

  1. Reality is Advaita (non-dual), and that Reality I AM. Meaning nothing is apart from Me.
  2. Hence if I mentally entertain or physically HURT, injure or cheat someone in whatsoever way… then I'm actually HURTING, injuring or cheating MYSELF.

Above logic isn't theoretical. But directly perceived through your own experience.

For example, remember a time when you were unfair to someone. Maybe cheated on someone, were too harsh, OR took advantage when noone was watching.

How did you feel later?

Usually, consequence of violation of ahiṁsā or Samanya Dharma is: GUILT. So it's a reliable emotional indicator to re-evaluation one's behavior if one has either (1) been insensitive or (2) not being completely honest.

On last note, ahiṁsā doesn't mean one should subordinate to docile impotency when situation otherwise requires the face of authority.

Example: A father may raise his voice or spank the child (which appears like violence; himsā). But if this is consciously done to discipline child from repeating the spoilt behavior, then it does not violate ahiṁsā. Hence the intention behind the action is what matters.

Same with a surgeon. It appears like surgeon is hurting the body by cutting it open. But surgeons intent is to help the patient. Hence it doesn't violate ahiṁsā.

3. satyam

satyam means “Truth”.

In context of moment-to-moment discipline, it means…

Truthful living as result of congruence between (1) What I say, and (2) What I do.

This is integrity. A characteristic of a mature Spiritual being.

Because it's not easy to keep our word (intellectual convictions, values, beliefs, ideals)… while consistently exposed to worldly appealing appetites tempting us into contrary direction.

And each time we say “Yes” (especially if noone is watching), this immediately jeopardizes our integrity. Example of violation of “satyam”.

Hence satyam is a discipline that needs to be consistently maintained by  reminding ourself the significance and long term benefit of adhering to our intellectual values, so we're not seduced by day-to-day allurements that would compromise what we know to be right for us. 

Real life example of violation of “satyam” would be…

A devoted student of Karma Yoga and Jnana Yoga, suddenly gets an invitation to a birthday party.

During the party, he/she strikes a conversation with a pretty/handsome opposite. In hopes to appease the other, he/she agrees with the others thinking-behavior… which is clearly known to be impure or out of harmony with the Scriptures. Yet doesn't say anything, but decides to “play along”.

This is violation of satyam. IE: Living the life of purity-harmony, yet going along with impurity-disharmony when a sensual tempting opportunity arises. This persons integrity has been compromised. Which leads to self-esteem degradation, guilt and mind-noise (chitta).


3) Explain the art of living in harmony with the world.

Let's first define meaning of “harmony” using metaphor of an Orchestra on a stage – composed of 40 players or artists. And you are one of the artists.

Each artist is playing his/her musical instrument that best suits his/her personality. For example, a Harp artist won't play the Violin… who won't play the flute… who play the Cello.

All artists are “orchestrated” by the Conductor (Īśvara, or Nature's Harmony).

Suppose the Orchestra begins. And everyone is playing their musical instrument to best of their ability. Including YOU. In other words, each artist (Jiva) is contributing to the TOTAL harmonious melody, which is enjoyed and benefited by the audience (world).

 As long as YOU (one of the artists) continue to play as guided by the Conductor… the peace and harmony is maintained. You may seldom slip out of tune, but your willingness to CONTINUE playing in harmony of the TOTAL… will be quickly forgiven and hardly noticed. 

This is called: Art of living in harmony with the world. It's an art. A practice. Mindful, conscious and intelligent use based on the care of the WHOLE.

Now let's suppose halfway, YOU decide to play your instrument according to your own likes-dislikes (Vāsana; rāga-dveṣa).

What happens? Not only do you adversely affects the minds of other artists (noticing the intentional/unintentional discord of melody), but you are also essentially disrespecting Īśvara (Lord), who has given you and continues to provide everything you value in life. Including your next breath.

The result is: Suffering.

This is the price of NOT willing to practice the Art of living in harmony with the world. Therefore, it is every humans DUTY to:

  1. Rise ABOVE our egocentric likes-dislikes (Vāsana).
  2. Begin to include in our decisions/actions – the TOTALITY of the World. “Is this adding or subtracting from the Existing harmony of the world?”

Two more methods to approach our intentional/unintentional discords with the TOTAL, is:

  1. Refuse to make your apparent faults/discords YOUR OWN. If you could've done any better, you would've. But didn't, a better way wasn't accessible at the time. This doesn't mean to submissively surrender or witness the misfortunes. This is worse then death. But inquire, “How will I act next time to bring harmony to the situation?”
  2. Begin looking at your apparent fault/discord as one shared by the society/world. You're not the only one suffering. This way, you  realize how insignificant your complaints really are, when you include the TOTAL into the inquiry.  (In fact, it's arrogance to own and complain about one's problem, as if they're somehow ABOVE OTHERS, and worthy of being heard. Why waste other people's time having them listen to a problem shared by hundreds of millions of others at any one moment!)

Finally, Vedāntic way of life provides us a formula how to live a harmonious life:

  1. Living a DYNAMIC life: This means, being fully engaged in external worldly duties. Material success and prosperity is fine, as long as the #2 below is included amidst your busy, passionate, goal-oriented lifestyle…
  2. Living a PEACEFUL life: Meaning, amidst #1 above, if one is to evolve in any real sense and understand the Supreme Reality… endevour to balance it with Spiritual/Religious contemplation and study.

We rarely see individuals sharing both and balanced 1/2. But when you do, realize you've met someone who may play a major positive influence in your life.


4) What are the two aspects of true religion? How are they to be practised by the seeker to progress spiritually?

Religion to be worthy of being called Religion, has to contain these 2 aspects:

1) Enquiry & Philosophy

This involves the Theoretical aspect. (Education/Knowledge)

And it is gained through the 5 organs of Perception. Like through eyes (reading) and ears (listening; srvana).

In short: Aspect #1 provides instructions on living a harmonious, happy life that “leads” one to Permanent Satisfaction (mokṣa, Liberation, Freedom).

It also reinforces and sheds light for the reason and significance of external Rituals (as discussed in Aspect #2 below).

For example, absence of Aspect #1, results in mechanical Japa, Prayer, Puja, Chanting, Mantras… which yields no fruit (phala) unless backed up by Knowledge of those practices.

Finally, it supplies us with scientific and rational analysis about the TOTALITY of one's Subjective experience – answering questions humans have been asking from time immemorial:

  • What is the highest purpose of my life?
  • How did creation come about?
  • What is Consciousness?
  • What is my (Jiva) relationship to the Absolute (Brahman; Consciousness)?
  • How to “attain” the Absolute?
  • How to manage my Mind?

2) Devotion & Ritualism

This involves the PRACTICAL aspect.

It's putting education/knowledge obtained in Aspect #1… into a living day-to-day lifestyle. Practicing and embodying the knowledge.

And it's put into application through 5 organs of Action. Like through our speech, hands and feet.

It can be expressed, both through the body (worship), mind (bhakti yoga), and intellect (Jnana yoga). Other forms involve, but not limited to:

  • Prayer
  • Compassionate speaking (priya vadam)
  • Worship of deity
  • Mantra
  • Karma Yoga
  • Rites and ceremonies
  • Meditation
  • Self-inquiry (Discrimination and Contemplation of Self as Self)

How are both of these aspect to be practiced… to progress spiritually?

The answer is in the question. Include them both in your life.

For example, can you fix a radio without the knowledge (Aspect #1) of electronics? No.

And if you're the world's smartest electrical engineer (eg: Nikola Tesla, Thomas Edison)… will the radio be fixed if you DO NOT actually physically fix (Aspect #2) it? No.

Therefore need both for a successful outcome.

And here's a real life example for intelligently applying both aspects to progress Spiritually…

  1. Through the study of the Scriptures (Śruti), you discover that intelligent and consistent Self-restraint is required. As not to fall into excessive sense indulgence… which takes your mind AWAY FROM contemplation of Supreme Truth (Brahman).
  2. You find yourself at a social gathering with Alcohol present. Seeing most are drinking as if there's no tomorrow, you politely deny an offer for another drink.

5) What happens to a seeker if one:

(i) forcibly denies himself or herself indulgence in sense pleasures?
(ii) continues in his or her sense ‘free-living’ and yet tries to practice religion?

“Seeker” generally refers to one that appreciates and aspires for pursuit of Truth. But this pursuit is always subject LIMITED understanding.

Because understanding is LIMITED, the seeker is prone to 2 mistakes that hinder their pursuit:

(i) forcibly denies himself/herself indulgence in sense pleasures?

Denying one's natural personal impulses (eg: going to social event, seeking an intimate relationship, cessation of favorite-foods)… at expense of pursuing Truth… is as equivalent to helping everyone else on the airplane to put on the oxygen mask in an emergency… but forgetting to put yours on FIRST!

After all, you've done what's considered compassionate. Yet failed to address your survival impulse or needs. Hence, such suppressive behavior is unintelligent stupidity.

In other words, this leads to ultimate downfall of seekers pursuit of Self-Knowledge. Because they're constantly pressured by likes-dislikes (vāsana's / rāga-dveṣa) to act per their tendencies.

And what happens after such prolonged suppression of indulgences is their sense organs (and it's appetites for experience) take precedence over pursuit of Truth. It's same reason why dieting through willpower fails for majority.

Eventually resentment builds towards Religion/Truth for it apparently being the cause of the seekers pain. And they give it up.

Then second mistake is…

(ii) continues in his or her sense ‘free-living’ and yet tries to practice religion?

This is another opposite extreme of the first.

This approach is as good as cracked pillars on brink of desolation, supporting a house. It'll fall sooner or later.

Sense indulgences gained through “free-living” can be overpowering…

Especially for those who have NOT invested years in consistent spiritual practice (sādhana) to calm, focus and control the erratic, sense-consuming, pleasure-seeking emotional mind… and relative-knowledge consuming intellect.

Hence, eventually “free living” gradually takes precedence or importance.

Eventually seeker gives up or turn Truth/Religion/Scriptures into a “side hobby”.


6) What are all the essential requirements for building up a mighty and glorious nation?

What brought the largest, most advanced, seemingly unstoppable Roman Empire to it's knees… which lasted for over 1000 years? An empire that had every kind of power, sensual luxury and wealth a human mind can conceive.

Answer is, the essential requirements are absent. And by their lack – also cause gradual degradation of the entire nation. Which is prevalent amongst majority of today's nations in varying degrees.

So what are these “essential requirements” by which a nation can prosper in both Spiritual and Material harmony?

Simple answer is: Education people of the nation about higher/nobler goals which comprise of Religious/Scriptural evergreen truths.

In other words, the essential requirement is: Persistent attention on one's own spiritual development.

This is clearly lacking today. Which is why Religion is losing it's popularity because of excess material glorification and prioritization. Hence the nation defaults to improving the objective-physical world. Either through:

  1. Economic planning: Wealth enhancement, material prosperity
  2. Political reforms: Dogmas and relationships amongst nation and international affairs
  3. Scientific advances: Discovering new laws of the material universe, enhancing amenities

Yet, despite these object world improvements having a certain benefit… the problem is… without Spiritual guidance… they have simultaneously created:

  1. Power-mad society
  2. Wealth-obsessed individuals
  3. Pleasure-worshiping nation

In other words, haven't caused any real, lasting value. It's same reason Roman Empire collapsed.

 Therefore, the essential requirements for BUILDING a mighty and glorious nation can be summarized into few points: 
  1. Educating nations people to higher and nobler goal beyond material prosperity. Specifically about the balance of Morals (dharma), Wealth (artha), Enjoyment (kāma). Mainly by re-prioritizing Religion.
  2. Having thus people re-direct their contribution or effort into proper channels towards the objective world. Instead of OWNING it all for themselves for selfish enjoyments.
  3. Nation's government pushing through media and advertising platforms, the glory and joy from living a Spiritually oriented life.
  4. Each citizen being inspired to SHINE like a beacon of light on the shore, for those who've lost their way, to appreciate a life adhered by Scriptural standards and recommendations.
  5. Each citizen to share the spirit of self-less dedication for sole reason and privilege of serving his or her country.
  6. Educating the nations people that following Religion actually gives us what we're all seeking: Permanent satisfaction. Instead of temporary pleasure gotten through material gains.

Finally, if everyone in an Institution is thinking “What can I gain and how much can I profit?“, then can that institution grow into a healthy one? Impossible. It's success will be unknowingly limited by the selfish attitude of it's citizens.

But if the Institution's citizens attitude is “How can I serve?“, then not only does the Institution grow, hence benefit the society… but the people within it also grow Spiritually.


7) Define culture. What happens when respect for cultural values deteriorates in a country?

Culture is made up of 3 parts (for ease of understanding):

  1. People living together in…
  2. Same geographical area (whether institution, state or nation), and…
  3. Following particular values of life… originating from both the quality and quantity of Philosophical/Religious education.

Hence, culture is defined by it's people with traits and characteristics oriented towards certain views, ideas, beliefs and philosophies about life. Hence,  culture is what people follow. 

In fact, culture is the measuring rod of a civilization, which reveals the welfare of their physical, psychological, social, economic and spiritual well-being.

Thus is the importance of Scriptures (śastra) which help cultivate happiness and peace in one's life. And if this cultivation captures an entire region and is entertained by it's people, then that's considered a prosperous culture built on values and virtues.

On the other hand, if cultural values deteriorate in a country, then…

  1. Giving/service converts to grabbing/selfishness.
  2. Abundance attitude (love) converts to scarcity mentality (fear).
  3. Peaceful/joyes minds converts to agitated, emotionally dominant minds.
  4. Civilized convert to barbarous.
  5. Morality converts to immorality.
  6. Integration converts into dis-integration.
  7. Clarity converts into confusion.

In short, the country's people gradually lose common sense, are driven by lower drives of self-preservation… and eventually the culture, along with it's people falls disastrously. Eg: This happened to Roman Empire, Nazi's in Germany, see more at Wikipedia.


8) Describe a Yogī (Person of Achievement)

A Yogī is unattached to fruits of his/action, yet the action is performed with total devotion stemming from love of it.

This is opposite of typical worldly man-woman who're motivated either out of (1) personal profit, or (2) personal agenda that extends to the betterment of the entire world. Either way, the worldly woman-woman's drive is fueled by their own idea or vision of what it means to improve or better themselves, community, nation or the world.

While a yogī is not motivated by any agenda. Rather yogī's action can be considered stemming out of “Total surrender to Īśvara (God)”.

What's more, yogī's action is performed out of love for the Lord (bhagavān)… and in some cases out of direct understand that nothing is separate in Existence (all is Self). Meaning yogī knows that no personally motivated action can bring more joy then the joy of surrendering all one's action to the Lord (Īśvara).

A yogī claims no “rights”, for he/she is not concerned with “rights”, which are of personal ego based likes-dislikes (Vāsana's).

A Yogī serves without seeing it as serving. This is Person of Achievement. Highest level of human development.


9) Describe the four distinct stages of development of the human intellect.

Through time, human intellect has evolved into four stages. The 4th is superior to first three. And if 4th is undiscovered or unacknowledged, then intellect will become stagnant and eventual lead person into decadence.

So let's cover them now…

1) Age of Gazing

In the beginning, the barbaric, uncivilized era of “survival of the fittest”, humans simply gazed at the phenomenal world of endless subjective/objective experiences.

They lacked capacity to engage the thinking intellect in order to analyze or question the experience that they're subject to.

From another angle, this was the age of instinct driven by the endless impulses of the emotional Mind. Unguided by the intellect, humans were acted similar to animals while confronted with situations.

For example, when an pleasant experience occurred, they enjoyed it. When unpleasant experience occurred, they suffered helplessly.

Thus, curiosity was absent for which reason they didn't inquire the CAUSE of anything.

Yes, this stage is still prevent today, whereby a person enjoys the sunset or sunrise, yet never inquires what forces CAUSE that. They just GAZE and ENJOY/SUFFER.

2) Age of Observation (or) Superstition

Ever heard:

  • “7 years of bad luck”, when mirror is broken?
  • Friday 13th is unlucky day.
  • “Beginners luck”.
  • Conspiracy theories.

Thus this Age too is commonly seen today. Superstitious thinking originates when we link a CAUSE to an EFFECT, yet with poor or absent use of intellectual logic or scientific reason.

This is an Age when the human mind began to utilize faculty of CURIOSITY. Began to wonder WHY. Hence began causation hunting.

Meaning people began consciously observing the Objective/Subjective world, but due to narrow sighted and underdeveloped intellect… they linked erroneous notions between the CAUSE and EFFECT.

For example, if they Observed leaves rustling. And few minutes later rain fell. Then they would attribute rain being the CAUSE of the rustling leaves (EFFECT). This is impulsive cause-effect association with little to no use of Intellect.

Today, 2nd stage of thinking can been seen in those blindly following uninvestigated superstition, without inquiring it's origin or relative benefit.

3) Age of Scientific Inquiry

This is dominance of CURRENT age. Discovering the CAUSE, laws and workings of everything.

The peak of this Age is seen in industries like Quantum mechanics, neuro-science, physics, biology, space exploration, etc.

Conclusions originated from Superstition (Age #2) is converted into conclusions resting on rational, investigated, analyzed logical Scientific facts.

This is age of hypothesis and Objective inquiry of the world, instead of Subjective opinions. And it's observations are further supported by Scientific instruments (like Microscope, stethoscope, Telescope, etc.)

Example of scientists who demonstrated peak of this Age: Nikola Tesla, Thomas Edison, Einstein, Stephen Hawking, Ramanujan (Indian mathematician).

Yet, this Age is only dealing with matter (mithya), but it fails to acknowledge Spirit or the Substratum (Satya) on which all matter depends on.

Eventually, some scientists in this Age are eventually elevated to Subjective Contemplation. Which is the next Age; most superior…

4) Age of Contemplation

This is Age when inquirer turns attention inwards to Self in order to discover Absolute Knowledge (Satya) behind all Relative Knowledge (Age #3; mithya).

It's when Subjective research begins, because inquirer isn't content or satisfied with their Objective/external discoveries or accomplishments.

One awakened to this age, is helplessly excited about answers to questions like:

  • Who is the external law giver?
  • Who made the laws of the universe?
  • What is the origin of Creation?
  • What is my relationship to the WHOLE?
  • What is the primeval cause of everything?

Essentially, this Age is one all rishis/sages have known and taught since time immemorial – recognizing it's superiority to Age #3.

This age is based on eternal Philosophy or Religion. Meaning their precepts don't change over time.


10) Draw a distinction between the gross and the subtle intellects.

Gross intellect:

This intellect is used to analyze, investigate, evaluate and dissect the mechanics or phenomena of the Matter world (GROSS/PHYSICAL WORLD).

For example, to fix a small electric motor, intellect doesn't need to go beyond the Knowledge of the motor.

Hence GROSS intellect is used to deal with the GROSS world/matter/objects – which we can detect via

  1. Instruments of Perception: Human 5 organs of Perception (ears, eyes, skin, tongue, nose). Including scientific instruments of perception (eg. telescope, barometer, thermometer, etc).
  2. Inference

Subtle intellect:

This intellect is used to discern or discriminate:

  • Real (satya) VS. Unreal (mithya)
  • Chageless VS. Changing
  • Eternal VS. Ephemeral

Subtle intellect developed, leads to asking questions that are no longer limited to world of Observable Matter as pointed out by Science. Questions about nature of Reality start to arise, such as:

  • Who or what made the smallest Quartz/Proton/Neutron/Higg's God Particle?
  • How was the Universe put together?
  • Who/what is this person whom I call “I”?
  • How is reality advaita (non-dual), when I see difference?
  • What or who is God?
  • How do I attain permanent satisfaction?


11) What are the four personalities in a seeker and how can they be integrated?

Lack of harmony between the following four personalities results in inner conflict in an Individual. Which in turn contributes to OUTER conflict in the world.

Hence if you're thinking “I want to save the world”, the fastest way to do so is by integration of these four personalities.

Last point to note is each personality has it's own unique values/demands. Hence each responds or demands according it's nature.

For example, if one is offered a delicious cake (appeasing the PHYSICAL personality), while simultaneously their INTELLECTUAL personality calculates that extra sugar will cause Fatigue (Tamas) – leading to an unproductive day… then there will be inner conflict.

Above example is typical daily experience of an individual whose 4 personalities remain non-integrated.

1) Physical

Personality says: There is ENJOYMENT or SENSE SATISFACTION of feeling soft skin. (Of TASTING sweet cake, SEEING beauty, HEARING music, etc).

This personality originates out of the physical BODY, the perceiver of Objects. And it's 5 instruments of knowledge (ears, eyes, tongue, nose, skin). And also 5 organs of action (hands, feet, sex, anus, speech).

It's the grossest of the 4 personalities.

2) Emotional

Personality says: I experience HAPPINESS feeling soft skin. (JEALOUSY seeing man with my woman, PEACE chanting a mantra, etc).

This personality originates in the Mind, feeler of emotions. Meaning any experience of emotion (joy, contentment, resentment, anger, desire, fear) as result of sensory input from Personality #1… is felt within facility of the Emotional Mind.

3) Intellectual

Personality says: Do I have time for this now or later would be more appropriate?

This personality is the thinker or thoughts. One that judges, discriminates or discerns: Right/Wrong. Or Real/Unreal. Or Good/Bad.

It's where all rationalization, logic and analysis occurs, in order to make best possible and calculated decision.

4) Spiritual

Personality says: Is this in my highest and greatest good. My goal is mokṣa. I choose to exercise forbearance and abstinence.

This personality's eye is on noble-moral goals of life and Spiritual Enlightenment. That part of us that's in touch with the Holy, the Sacred, the Eternal. Which when cultivated, leads to the highest goal of life; mokṣa.

Now let's ask…

How to integrate these 4 personalities and maintain their integration?

Answer is to understanding that the  next succeeding personality has superiority over the preceding one  (EG: Intellectual directing Emotional). But only if succeeding is nourished and cultivated. Else the preceding will have superiority (EG: Emotional directing Intellectual).

We can easily prove this hypothesis by looking at teenagers. Most lack nobler goals in life. Meaning there is little use or need of Intellect. Hence they're easily enticed, swayed and directed by PHYSICAL/EMOTIONAL stimulation.

But as teen transmutes into householder stage (marries and has children; grihastha āśrama), the adult is now almost forced to make use of Intellect over Physical/Emotional drives, due to objectives (puruṣārtha) having changed.

Thus, solution to integration of 4 personalities is:  Establish and maintain vision of a higher and nobler goal. And have all actions, decision and thoughts be in service of this GOAL. 

For example, if my goal is cultivating Forgiveness/Compassion towards myself and others, then this goal will silently cause Physical, Emotional, Intellectual and Spiritual personalities to talk together, in order to maintain a life of Forgiveness/Compassion.


12) Write a paragraph each on puruṣārtha (self-effort) and prārabdha (destiny).

prārabdha (Destiny)

This is WHAT happens in your life – or in every day experience. Which is result of the continuity of one's past actions.

For example, Mark unfairly insults Radhika at work. Radhika doesn't say anything.

One week later when Mark forgot about the incidence, he gets called into office with Radhika sitting in one chair. Boss tells Mark to sit down in the other.

In this example, the “WHAT-HAPPENS” of Mark's life is Destiny (prārabdha).

puruṣārtha (self-effort)

This is HOW one approaches Destiny. Or how “WHAT-HAPPENS” is dealt with in that EXACT moment.

For example, Mark now has a choice to either (a) Apologize to boss and Radhika, or (b) Not apologize and justify his actions being right.

Of course both “a” and “b” will create another prārabdha (Destiny).

In conclusion:

Both are entwined. They're inseparable. Meaning…

  • prāradbha (Destiny) is continuity of PAST ACTIONS, modified by PRESENT DECISION (puruṣārtha).
  • puruṣārtha (Self-effort) is consistent freedom to modify PAST ACTIONS (prārabdha) occurring the PRESENT.