10 – Drg Drsya Viveka (14): Maya, Ishvara & Brahman Are True Now – Upadhi & Upahita


Lecture 10 shows that creation or universe and the jiva (a sentient being) are both incidental projections. Doctrine of Upadhi and Upahita. What is moksha (enlightenment)?

Source: Drg Drsya Viveka

VERSE 14: Projection of Creation

सृष्टिः-नाम ब्रह्म-रूपे सत्-चिद्-आनन्द-वस्तुनि | अब्धौ फेन-आदिवत् सर्व-नाम-रूप-प्रसारणा ||
sṛṣṭiḥ-nāma brahma-rūpe sat-cid-ānanda-vastuni | abdhau phena-ādivat sarva-nāma-rūpa-prasāraṇā ||
Creation is the manifestation of names and forms in the Reality which is Existence – Consciousness – Limitlessness, like foam etc. in the ocean.

[COMMENTARY: Creation is manifestation of names and forms (nāma-rūpa), not production of any new substance. Nāma-rūpa depends on Brahman for its existence, like waves depend on water. Brahman is satyam, nāma-rūpa is mithyā. Brahman is the substratum for the apparent nāma-rūpa. Nāma-rūpa is projected on Brahman like waves on water. They appear different but made of same stuff. Due to māyā, Brahman appears as the changing world of names and forms. In deep sleep, we experience Brahman without nāma-rūpa. At cosmic dissolution, nāma-rūpa resolves and Brahman alone exists. We fail to recognize our identity with Brahman due to self-ignorance caused by māyā's concealing power.]

  • Sṛṣṭiḥ: Wherever you see creation, it’s a result of maya-shakti. When it’s manifest, it’s called Ishvara, which is knowledge-power organizing every form, interacting with other forms by help of laws-orders. So both maya and Ishvara are operating. But both depend on existence-consciousness.
    • So 3 principles are true any moment:
      • (a) Ishvara: knowledge-power with which is organizing every form, interacting with other forms.
      • (b) Maya: Capacity for form to change to something else.
      • (c) Existence-Consciousness.
    • Let’s demonstrate:
      • THOUGHTS: Before thought (Ishvara/maya) comes, Awareness is. While thought is present, Awareness is. After thought goes, Awareness is. While there's silence, Awareness is.
      • BODY: Where body/brain-cell/I-sense is, that’s exactly where knowledge-power exists which is making it what it is. And where there is knowledge/power, that’s exactly where Awareness is.
    • METAPHORE: Normally, wave’s focus is on other wave forms. Then wave receives a teaching which makes it aware of the all-pervading Ocean in whom every wave enjoys it’s existence. Then wave is told, “wherever you see Ocean, there exactly is Water.”
      • When you touch the wave, you also touch the Ocean and the Water, without which the little wave-form, nor Ocean can exist.
      • So the wave-ocean-water enjoy a satya-mithya relationship. Wave/ocean are different in form. One has limited capacity, another limitless. But both are one water.
      • Similarly, your understanding is taken from forms (5 elements), to Ocean (knowledge/power), to Water (sat-cit) using an equation.
        • Initially, things look different on both sides, but both equal to 4 upon solving, EG: 3 + 1 = 6 – 2.
        • If solve the equation incorrectly, then “tat tvam asi” (You are Ishvara), will mean “I, as body-mind, is God”. Need to look at the immediate (vacyartha) and intended (lakshyartha) meaning.
        • On left side of equation we have all-knowledge/power called Ishvara. On right side we have limited-knowledge/power called jiva. Isvara enjoys the same truth as you. You don’t know the truth, Ishvara knows it. That’s why teaching comes from Ishvara. Knowledge can’t come from human beings because just to be born means “I don’t have knowledge of reality”.
    • Objection: Why don’t I just say “I am Awareness”, if everything resolves into it. Why bother saying “I am Ishvara… and the truth of Ishvara is my truth also”?
      • To skip Ishvara, you’re ignoring big part of inquiry. You’re ignoring all-knowledge/power which is organizing this universe this very… and your maturity is dependent on recognizing and aligning to it’s laws for sake of perceiving properly. Therefore “tat tvam asi” brings in everything; maturity and knowledge.
    • MOKSHA (FREEDOM FROM THE JIVA): When wave come to know, the truth of wave/ocean is water, the difference in Wave and Ocean remains. Wave doesn’t go through any expansion. Recognizing wave-ness & ocean-ness are only incidental, not intrinsic to water. Demonstrated with…
      • Upadhi/Upahita Model:
        • Upadhi is that which as though lends is attributes to something else. EG: Rose is upadhi. It as though lends it’s attribute to glass (upahita: that which as though takes on attributes of something else).
        • How to show that redness belongs to rose and not glass? By removing the red rose, and placing a yellow flower. If glass is red, it can never give up redness. Fact that sometimes it’s red, and sometimes yellow, shows it’s free from both upadhis.
        • Similarly, jiva/Ishvara are upadhis. The uphahita is Existence-Awareness. From standpoint of jiva, Existence-Awareness seems to take on limited-knowledge/power. From standpoint of Ishvara, Existence-Awareness seems to take on all knowledge/power.
  • Sarva-nama-rūpa-prasāraṇā: There are different names according to what you wish to indicate. For every experienced phenomena, there has to be a name to explain it away.
    • EG: Water has names like bubble, ocean, iceberg, river, pond, snow, spring.
  • SUMMARY: Wherever you see a form, there Ishvara is. Wherever Ishvara is, it depends on sat-cit.
  • NEXT VERSE: So far, we’ve seen vikṣepa-shakti. Next is avarana-shakti.


Course was based on [1] Drig Drishya Viveka book by Swami Tejomayananda [2] Book by Swami Nikhilananda [3] Neema Majmudar.

Recorded 18 Jan, 2024

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