Ishvara Glories: I AM, Sun, Moon, Wind, Sama Veda (83)


Lesson 83 starts by Arjuna asking Krishna to reveal His glories. Krishna starts with how you are sat-cit (Existence-Awareness, I AM). Then continues with glories of various devatas presiding over sun, moon, wind. Also glory of musical sāmaveda.

Source: Bhagavad Gita, Chapter 10: Verse 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22


  • Verse 1-11:
    • Spoke of Īśvara’s svarūpa. This svarūpa is called yoga/māyā. Māyā has capacity to manifest vibhūti (jagat).
      • This capacity (called māyā) is both intelligent (nimitta-karaṇam) & material (upādāna-karaṇam) cause – whether in unmanifest potential OR manifest vibhūti.
        • For this reason, Īśvara is also defined as: sarva-jñānam & sarva-śakti.
    • And because the One is the substance of entire universe, no separate effort needed to appreciate the One.
      • This vision is called: virāt-bhakti OR viśva rūpa-bhakti.
      • Consequence is:
        • Rāga/dveṣa is neutralized. Mental disturbances reduce. Sattvik mind.
        • Sattvik mind begins innocently feeling attracted to nirguṇa Īśvara jñānam.
        • Īśvara’s grace (out of compassion) brings bhakta in contact with śāstra/ācārya.
        • Leads to: aparokṣa-jñānam.
  • Verse 12-18:
    • Arjuna requests: I want to hear more viśva-rūpa Glorious ones. Known & unknown.
      • EG: Elephant playing VS. cockroach. Both Īśvara, but elephant easier to adore.
    • Why does Arjuna request this?
      • Because antaḥkaraṇa is limited to meditating or devoting-to ONE object at a time.
      • Thus show me some finite symbols which can expand my devotion.
  • What is devotion (bhakti-yoga)? Knowing the essence behind the devoted.
    • EG: Some are regular “devotees” of colorful/tasty soda-drinks. But essence of all is water (attributeless).
    • Thus when know essence BEHIND all vibhūtis, only then 3 definitions of Devotion are free of likes/dislikes.
    • Difference between dvaita VS advaita bhakti-yoga:
      • Dvaita: 3 words applied to particular object.
      • Advaita: 3 words apply to TOTAL.
  • NEXT VERSE 16: Arjuna acknowledges Bhagāvan alone is qualified to speak of vibhūtis…


Bhagavad Gita, Chapter 10 – Verse 16:

vaktumarhasyaśeṣeṇa divyā hyātmavibhūtayaḥ |
yābhirvibhūtibhirlokānimāṃstvaṃ vyāpya tiṣṭhasi ||

You should completely narrate (those) divine glories of Yours by which glories you remain pervading these world.


  • Vaktum arhasi aśeṣeṇa: Puruṣottama, you alone are capable of revealing ātma-vibhūtis (glories).
    • Ātma is reflexive pronoun. Meaning it refers to both vibhūti-objects and ātma (self).
      • Hints glories also belong to self, because “I AM” not away from Bhagavān.
  • What kind of glories?
    • Divyā, not of this world. Alaukika.
  • Yābhiḥ vibhūtibhiḥ lokān imān tvaṃ vyāpya tiṣṭhasi: Only you (Īśvara) are eligible to talk, because you pervade all.
    • The more I listen to these nectar like words, expressing ānanda (limitlessness), the more I want to know.
    • In other words: For those who can’t DIRECTLY appreciate you, what are places/things where your glories are pronounced, that it can become an object of meditation (in the limited mind)…
  • VERSE 17-18: Arjuna requests Krishna to reveal His glories…


Bhagavad Gita, Chapter 10 – Verse 17:

kathaṃ vidyāmahaṃ yogiṃstvāṃ sadā paricintayan|
keṣu keṣu ca bhāveṣu cintyo'si Bhagavānmayā ||

Oh Lord of all powers! Constantly thinking of you, how can I know ((your true nature)? In what all objects are you to be meditated upon by me, Oh Lord?


  • Sadā paricintayan katham vidyām: How can I have permanent vision of your glories, when all I see is objects?
    • ANSWER: Must see behind the perceived object.
      • Vision is of buddhi. It’s not vision of physical eye, but eye of wisdom.
    • So what does “meditating on Īśvara” mean?
      • I see glories of Īśvara through eye of knowledge (essence behind vibhūtis).
        • IE: By meditating on ornaments, I am only ever meditating on Gold.
  • Keṣu keṣu ca bhāveṣu cintayaḥ asi: Which specific objects are to be meditated upon, which STANDS OUT in creation.
    • EG: Some people become popular through own dharmic karmās. Glory which made them popular is Īśvara. Such person becomes focus of meditation for other aspirants. EG: Ramaṇa Maharṣi.
  • Definition of Īśvara glory:
    • Revering something which has value.
    • VALUE: excludes imagined/superimposed value.
      • EG: Gold has 2 values:
        • Intrinsic: Rare, rust proof, malleable.
        • Superimposed: monetary value, status symbol.
    • Meaning to treasure Īśvara glory:
      • Object’s intrinsic value MINUS superimposed value.
      • The intrinsic value is what bhakta contemplates upon.
        • EG: I contemplate Ramaṇa Maharṣi not because his mind is pure. But purity itself is Īśvara’s
  • NEXT VERSE: V18 expands further…


Bhagavad Gita, Chapter 10 – Verse 18:

Vistareṇa tmano yogaṃ vibhūtiṃ ca janārdana |
bhūyaḥ kathaya tṛptirhi śṛṇvato nāsti me'mṛtam ||

Oh Krishna! Tell (me) again about Your power and manifestation in detail, because there is no satisfaction for me who is listening to the nectar (of words).


  • Vistareṇa ātmanaḥ yogam vibhūtim ca: Please describe your (ātma) yoga/māyā potential, and vibhūtis in detail.
    • NOTE: Krishna already listed some glories in: 7.8, 9.16, 17
    • Why is yoga equated to māyā?
      • Yoga: combination.
      • Māyā: combination of 3 guṇās.
    • Can we directly know māyā?
      • No. Because potential remains unperceived (avyakta).
      • We can only infer (anumāna) māyā’s infinite potential, on bases of manifestations (vibhūti).
        • EG: How to know if person has potential to sing? Person sings!
        • In same way, universe itself is testimony of Bhagavān’s infinite māyā power.
  • Janārdana: 2 definitions from root: √ard
    • Definition 1: Going (gamana)
      • One who makes all asuras – go to unpleasant places, by law of karma. (EG: Narakādi loka)
      • Who are asuras?
        • Benevolent power-hungry devas.
        • Inhere both dharmic/adharmic qualities.
        • Unpredictable. One moment benevolent, another malevolent.
        • Guṇa composition:
          • Raja > tama > sattva (OR) Raja > sattva > tama.
        • Compared to rākṣasa:
          • Villains (evil/wicked).
            • EG: Bhīma's son, Ghaṭotkaca (in Mahābhārata), who actually fought for Truth, against Kauravas. So even rākṣasa can show acts of dharma. Symbolism of this is, there is not such thing as 100% evil in universe. Because all is composed of 3 guṇās. Thus everyone has some sattva-guṇa (responsible for dharmic thoughts).
          • Guṇa composition:
            • Tama > Raja > Sattva.
    • Definition 2: Asking for (yācana)
      • One who is propitiated (appeased) by all people, for receiving either:
        • Limited results: sakāma-bhaktās. Believes seeker is different from sought.
        • Infinite result: niṣkāma-bhaktās. The seeker and sought are not-two.
    • Janārdana (Krishna), narrate to me, because descriptions are like amṛta (nectar) to my ears.
  • VERSE 19-39: Krishna narrates His glories…


Verse 19-39: Krishna narrates His glories…

Bhagavad Gita, Chapter 10 – Verse 19:

śrī bhagavān uvāca
hanta te kathayiṣyāmi divyā hyātmavibhūtayaḥ |
prādhānyataḥ kuruśreṣṭha nāstyanto vistarasya me ||

The Lord replied — well, Oh Arjuna I shall tell you the main divine glories of Mine, because there is no limit to My manifestation.


  • Krishna is happy with Arjuna’s request. And will explain these special heavenly glories.
  • Nāsti antaḥ vistarasya me: No end to My glories, because they include all 14 lokās.
  • Prādhānyataḥ: For this reason, I will list few important ones.
  • NEXT VERSE: Nirguṇa vibhūti (glory) of sat-cit.


Bhagavad Gita, Chapter 10 – Verse 20:

ahamātmā guḍākeśa sarvabhūtāśayasthitaḥ |
ahamādiśca madhyaṃ ca bhūtānāmanta eva ca ||

Oh Arjuna I am the Self residing in the heart of all beings. I am the beginning, the middle, as well as the end of all beings.


  • Glory 1: Nirguṇa glory, respect to cit (Consciousness)
    • Krishna (who is always speaking as Īśvara) says, aham ātmā: Because I am ātma (consciousness reflected in the buddhi), then meditate upon ātma (self).
      • What is consciousness?
        • Consciousness is not a part, property or product of the body-mind.
          • Independent principle pervading and enlivening the body-mind.
          • Survives when body dissolves (ajñāni). Or body-mind dissolves (jñāni).
      • By meditating on self, one need not meditate on any glory. Why?
        • Since self is not away from Īśvara (cause of material universe), then meditating upon self, one is simultaneously including on all vibhūtis.
    • Guḍākeśa: refers to Arjuna.
      • 2 Definitions:
        1. One who mastered sleep/tamaḥ. Hence ALERT. Sattvic mind.
        2. Matted hair.
    • Aham ātmā guḍākeśa sarva bhūtāśaya-sthitaḥ: Arjuna, I am ātmā, the self obtaining in (your) very buddhi.
      • I aware > ahaṅkāra’s “I AM”.
      • I aware > buddhi’s thoughts / absence of.
      • Meaning:
        • In Arjuna, is Bhagavān. Not limited to just Arjuna.
        • “Arjuna” is a temporary superimposition (upādhi) owning to māyā.
        • Arjuna is saguṇa name/form. Arjuna aparā-prakṛti.
    • SUMMARY: If you seek most powerful contemplation upon Īśvara, contemplate on ātmā. Nididhyāsanam.
      • 2nd alternative: continue śravaṇam / mananam.
  • Glory 2: Nirguṇa glory, respect to sat (existence: IS-ness)
    • Aham ādiḥ bhūtānām: I am efficient (nimitta-kāraṇam) and material cause (upādāna-kāraṇam) of jagat.
      • Meaning manifestation, sustenance and dissolution enjoy their IS-ness (their existence), because of Me.
      • Thus IS-ness of anything refers to Īśvara’s material cause… put together by the efficient cause.
        • EG: Bange IS, necklace IS, ring IS, etc. IS-ness possible because of one Gold.
        • In other words, cause (yoga) is always manifest IN the effect (vibūti), as the VERY existence of the effect.
      • How to can invoke Īśvara in any object?
        • Extract the intrinsic value from the object. Then appreciate what’s left, as Īśvara’s vibhūti.
          • EG: “I love sugar” is personal value.
            • But intrinsic value being: “sweetness IS”.
            • Then contemplate on the sweetness, as Īśvara’s
  • 2 Glories combined (sat + cit) = I AM.
    • I: exit.
    • AM: as awarenesss.
  • NEXT VERSE: Saguṇa vibhūtis are listed…


Bhagavad Gita, Chapter 10 – Verse 21:

ādityānāmahaṃ viṣṇurjyotiṣāṃ raviraṃśumān |
marīcirmarutāmasmi nakṣatrāṇāmahaṃ śaśī ||

I am viṣṇuḥ among the Adityas, (I am) the radiant sun among the luminaries, I am mariciḥ among the Maruts, I am the moon among the luminaries of the night.


  • Ādityānām aham viṣṇuh: Āditya is a devata related to Sun.
    • There are 12 āditya-devatās (in pitṛ-loka), obtaining in 12 months of the year.
      • Even though Sun is one, it has 12 faces, from standpoint of Earth’s rotation around it.
    • Who is Viṣṇu?
      • Īśvara, when viewed from standpoint of sustenance.
    • Therefore, I am Viṣṇu, the sustainer of all 12 ādityas.
  • Jyotiṣām raviḥ aṁśumān: Among luminous bodies in sky, I am the sun, with it’s brilliant powerful rays.
    • I am the sun, which is the center of our solar system.
    • I energize the solar system, and give life to earth… whom all dwell upon.
    • This is why in Vedic tradition, we wake up before sun rises. To welcome the Lord, because He is coming to bless us, for one more day.
  • Marīciḥ marutām asmi:
    • There are 49 devatās called marut. Divided into 7 groups. Each group preside over an aspect of vāyu (wind).
    • Among these 49, I am Marīci, presiding deity of tender, pleasant, cool breeze. Which all enjoy.
      • Opposite is: Cyclone.
  • nakṣatrāṇām ahaṃ śaśī: Amongst the luminaries at night (like stars, planets), I am the brightest one, the moon.
    • Therefore we can even acknowledge the moon, as manifestation of Lord.
    • 2nd interpretation:
      • Nakṣatra: place one goes (after death). IE: loka.
        • And candra-loka is a better one.
          • NOTE: Candra (moon) in this 2nd interpretation is not referring to “physical moon”.
  • Point is, even the greatest-devatās we worship, lend their glory from Īśvara.
    • If one knows this, then won’t fall for worshipping, entertaining or wasting time on researching: angels, star children, channeled beings, aliens, NWO, poltergeists, illuminati, freemasons, pseudoscience, etc…
  • NEXT VERSE: I am glories, continues…


Bhagavad Gita, Chapter 10 – Verse 22:

vedānāṃ sāmavedo'smi devānāmasmi vāsavaḥ |
indriyāṇāṃ manaścāsmi bhūtānāmasmi cetanā ||

I am Samaveda among the Vedas, I am Indra among the Gods; I am the mind among the senses and I am the intelligence in all the beings.


  • vedānām sāma vedaḥ asmi: I am Sāma Veda.
    • Vedās are texts which are revealed by ṛṣi’s.
    • Considered most sacred texts in Vedic tradition, wherefrom karma-kāṇḍa and upaniṣads are found.
    • Most glorious is Sāma Veda. Because it is musical in nature. Other 3 are chanted.
      • Beautiful to listen to. So most attractive.
      • Also “Tat Tvam Asi” found in Sāma.
  • Devānām asmi vāsavaḥ: Among various devās (gods), I am Indra.
    • Just how 1 manu (L80) governs 1/14th of Brahmāji’s day (4.32Bil), there is also Indra alongside, who governs all other devatās of various aspects of creation (EG: fire, wind, etc).
    • Indra is like tax auditor, ensuring other devatās continue honest duty.
    • Noteworthy, all devatās are saṃsāri jīvās – holding big titles because of earthly puṇya-karma. Once exhausted, back to earth.
  • indriyāṇām aham asmi manaḥ: Amongst all sense-organs, I am the mind.
    • Jñāna-indriyāni are also Īśvara.
    • Each jñāna-indriya is limited to functioning in one field.
    • Whereas mind is behind all sense-organs.
      • Mind is bases where knowledge of all 5 sense-organs is cognized.
      • Meaning mind can function in all 5-fields. Thus it’s superior.
    • Learn to see own mind as greatest manifestation of Īśvara.
  • Bhūtānām asmi cetanā: I am buddhi, the faculty of cognition. The capacity to enquire/understand.
    • Meaning, I give that capacity which makes person say: “Ah! It’s clear now!”
    • 2nd interpretation: I am the very life-sentiency in every being.
      • Therefore practice ahimsa throughout all your actions.


Keywords: acarya, acharya, aditya, ajnani, amrita amrta, anta karana, antahkarana, anumana, apara-prakriti prakrti, aparoksha aparoksa, atma, bhagavan, brahmaji, cetana, devatas, divya, gudakesa gudakesha, indiryani, ishvara, janardana, jnani, karma kanda, karmas, marici, maya, naksatra nakshatra, narakadi, nididhyasanam, nimitta-karanam, nirguna, nishkama niskama, pitr pitri loka, purushottam purusottama, raga dvesa dvesha, raksasa, rakshasa, rakshashas, ramana maharishi maharshi, rsi rishi, saguna, sakama, samsari jivas, sarva-jnana, sarva-shakti sakti, shastra sastra, sravana shravana, svarupa, upadana-karana, vayu, vibhuti, virat, vishva visva rupa, visnu vishnu, yacana


Credit for help in Bhagavad Gita teaching given to Swami Dayananda (Arsha Vidya), Paramarthananda & Chinmaya Mission

Recorded 18 Feb, 2020



  1. I seem to have a strong desire to return in an incarnation with much wisdom to help others (yes, like a bodhisattva). If this desire is nourished in this life-time by practice and study, is it possible? As you have before answered a question of mine about once we become awakened there is no return or even desire to return to earth. And today you spoke again of how avataras are made to dispense Truth, not reincarnations of jivas. It seems to have been with me since a young age, to help others find peace and joy, but knowing I must work this out within myself first. The wisdom being shared of Advaita and joy of recognition of Self seems a jewel to be shared. My heart seems to break open and spill love, a love that seeks to flow over all beings and all things or rather all things seem a part already, like water in the wave, the ocean. Perhaps, the better question is why do I have this desire and is it something that I should work to eliminate? It feels as flame in the heart, but perhaps it is ego/ignorance being sneaky?

  2. HA!! I just saw, after clicking my comment to send, the “Recent Posts” below and look what you posted! “Validity of Mahayana ‘Bodhisattva’ Concept”. So, reading now.

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