Map of Existence Before Time-Space Came (Sankhya Philosophy 24-Model) (125)


Lesson 125 maps out reality before time-space-objects came, according to Sankhya Philosophy 24-principles model.

Source: Bhagavad Gita, Chapter 13, Verse 3, 4, 5

Bhagavad Gita, Chapter 13, Verse 3:

tat kṣetram yat ca yādṛk ca yat vikāri yataḥ ca yat ।
saḥ ca yaḥ yat prabhāvaḥ ca tat samāsena me śṛṇu ॥ 13-3
What is that Kṣetraṁ? Of what nature is it? Of what effects is it? Which effect (comes out) of which cause? What is that (kṣētrajña)? And of what glory is it? – Hear that from Me briefly.


  • Krishna is saying: In Verse 1 & 2, I’ve briefly touched upon topic of kṣetrajña and kṣetram. Now I will elaborate in further detail.
  • Elaborate what? 3 Topics:
      • What is included in kṣetram? What are some of it’s effects?
      • How specifically is Kṣetram made out of One Content (Consciousness)?
      • What kind of modifications does kṣetram undergo to become the manifest universe?
      • What are the CAUSES which take place for kṣetram to be created, sustained and modified?
    • GLORIES:
      • What are the glories of kṣetram’s highest CAUSE… being Kṣetrajña?
      • What is the glory of Brahman when conditioned by His own limitless māyā?
    • We will see the cause-effect relationship of this universe. Meaning, every EFFECT has a CAUSE. What is the first ORIGIN/SOURCE?

Bhagavad Gita, Chapter 13, Verse 4:

ṛṣibhiḥ bahudhā gītam chandobhiḥ vividhaiḥ pṛthak ।
brahma-sūtra-padaiḥ ca eva hetumadbhiḥ viniścitaiḥ ॥ 13-4॥
(This) has been taught by the sages variously. (This has been revealed) distinctly through various Vēdic hymns. (This has been taught) through logical and well- ascertained Upaniṣadic statements which reveal Brahman.


  • The very topic of kṣetra-kṣetrajña-viveka is so significant, that, vividhaiḥ chandobhiḥ: it’s mentioned in all Vedic texts (śāstra, itihāsa, smṛti, purānas, bhāṣyam, etc) in form of mantrās.
    • Why is it significant?
      • Because if one assimilates the distinction between matter and spirit (appearance and the content of all appearances)… then one has understood, at once, the entire universe (all worlds).
      • One is, at once, free. Has accomplished the highest goal in all lokās.
    • Fields of science (as brilliant as they are), are still figuring out the theory of everything. Reality remains a mystery.
      • Vedas already figured out: Reality = Consciousness appearing as Material universe.
  • Because this knowledge answers everything, ṛṣibhiḥ gītam: It’s sung, propounded, taught by the ṛṣis.
    • What is taught? kṣetra-kṣetrajña-viveka.
  • How exactly is the answer to Reality given? Pṛthak. Distinctly.
    • What is the distinction? Reality is a Satya-mithyā relationship.
Vedanta shows that reality is forms-with-forms. They all ultimately depend on Intelligence-satyam which puts together each mithyā (dependent) form into what it is. Diagram illustrates this from standpoint of Science atom-model, or Quantum Mechanics model.


  • What’s more, hetumadbhiḥ: Mantrās are backed up with reasoning/logic which can’t be contradicted from any angle, at any time.
    • For example Brahma Sūtra is 555 verses, 4 chapters, 16 sections, 192 topics.
      • It logically analyses what Upaniṣads/BG are saying.
      • It also establishes Advaita Vedānta is non-contradictory, in opposition other schools of thought.
        • EG:
          • Nyāya Śāstra concludes consciousness is property of matter.
          • Sānkhya Philosophy concludes consciousness is distinct from matter.
          • Vyāsa in Brahma Sūtra analyses every angle, and establishes Vedāntic conclusion.
  • Because next 2 verses expand on the big picture, Arjuna pay attention…

Bhagavad Gita, Chapter 13, Verse 5 & 6:

mahā-bhūtāni ahaṅkāraḥ buddhiḥ avyaktam eva ca ।
indriyāṇi daśa–ekam ca pañca ca indriya-gocarāḥ ॥ 13-5॥

icchā dveṣaḥ sukham duḥkham saṃghātaḥ cetanā dhṛtiḥ ।
etat kṣetram samāsena savikāram udāhṛtam ॥ 13-6॥

[V5] The five subtle elements, ahankara, mahat, Prakṛti. The ten sense organs, the mind, and the five gross elements, [V6] desire, hatred, pleasure, pain, the body-mind complex, sentiency, fortitude — all this, enumerated above briefly, is kṣetram, together with its modifications.



  • What is reason for an exhaustive study into kṣetram?
    • Because to distinguish Knower (self) from Known, we need a thorough understanding what constitutes world-of-objects. Else mind asks “What about __”.
  • Both verses expound what makes up the Field (Kṣetram). Specifically…
    • V5 elaborates what are the CAUSES of kṣetram. What are the ingredients mixed together to create kṣetram.
      • Field of śāstra.
    • V6 elaborates what are the seen EFFECTS within kṣetram (in reference to jīva).
      • Field of science through Perception/Inference.
  • To explain the make-up of the universe, various methodologies will categorize the manifest universe into orders of realities.
    • EG: Vaiṣeṣika divides universe into 7-fold-nature. Nyaya into 16-fold-nature. Sāṅkhya into 24-fold-nature.
    • Verse 5/6 borrows from Sāṅkhya’s 24-tattva model.


  • Map (in correct order of verse 5) done in class…
Sankhya Philosophy 24-Principles Model of Creation, per BG, CH13, Verse 5.




Credit for help in Bhagavad Gita teaching given to Swami Dayananda (Arsha Vidya), Paramarthananda & Chinmaya Mission.

Recorded 18 May, 2021


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