Ishvara Glories: I AM, Sun, Moon, Wind, Sama Veda (83)
Sri Krishna Glories: I AM, Sun, Moon, Wind, Sama Veda – Bhagavad Gita, CH10, Verse 16-22 (83)

Summary:

Lesson 83 starts by Arjuna asking Krishna to reveal His glories. Krishna starts with how you are sat-cit (Existence-Awareness, I AM). Then continues with glories of various devatas presiding over sun, moon, wind. Also glory of musical sāmaveda.

Source: Bhagavad Gita, Chapter 10: Verse 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22


Revision:

  • Verse 1-11:
    • Spoke of Īśvara’s svarūpa. This svarūpa is called yoga/māyā. Māyā has capacity to manifest vibhūti (jagat).
      • This capacity (called māyā) is both intelligent (nimitta-karaṇam) & material (upādāna-karaṇam) cause – whether in unmanifest potential OR manifest vibhūti.
        • For this reason, Īśvara is also defined as: sarva-jñānam & sarva-śakti.
    • And because the One is the substance of entire universe, no separate effort needed to appreciate the One.
      • This vision is called: virāt-bhakti OR viśva rūpa-bhakti.
      • Consequence is:
        • Rāga/dveṣa is neutralized. Mental disturbances reduce. Sattvik mind.
        • Sattvik mind begins innocently feeling attracted to nirguṇa Īśvara jñānam.
        • Īśvara’s grace (out of compassion) brings bhakta in contact with śāstra/ācārya.
        • Leads to: aparokṣa-jñānam.
  • Verse 12-18:
    • Arjuna requests: I want to hear more viśva-rūpa Glorious ones. Known & unknown.
      • EG: Elephant playing VS. cockroach. Both Īśvara, but elephant easier to adore.
    • Why does Arjuna request this?
      • Because antaḥkaraṇa is limited to meditating or devoting-to ONE object at a time.
      • Thus show me some finite symbols which can expand my devotion.
  • What is devotion (bhakti-yoga)? Knowing the essence behind the devoted.
    • EG: Some are regular “devotees” of colorful/tasty soda-drinks. But essence of all is water (attributeless).
    • Thus when know essence BEHIND all vibhūtis, only then 3 definitions of Devotion are free of likes/dislikes.
    • Difference between dvaita VS advaita bhakti-yoga:
      • Dvaita: 3 words applied to particular object.
      • Advaita: 3 words apply to TOTAL.
  • NEXT VERSE 16: Arjuna acknowledges Bhagāvan alone is qualified to speak of vibhūtis…

 

Bhagavad Gita, Chapter 10 – Verse 16:

vaktumarhasyaśeṣeṇa divyā hyātmavibhūtayaḥ |
yābhirvibhūtibhirlokānimāṃstvaṃ vyāpya tiṣṭhasi ||

You should completely narrate (those) divine glories of Yours by which glories you remain pervading these world.

 

  • Vaktum arhasi aśeṣeṇa: Puruṣottama, you alone are capable of revealing ātma-vibhūtis (glories).
    • Ātma is reflexive pronoun. Meaning it refers to both vibhūti-objects and ātma (self).
      • Hints glories also belong to self, because “I AM” not away from Bhagavān.
  • What kind of glories?
    • Divyā, not of this world. Alaukika.
  • Yābhiḥ vibhūtibhiḥ lokān imān tvaṃ vyāpya tiṣṭhasi: Only you (Īśvara) are eligible to talk, because you pervade all.
    • The more I listen to these nectar like words, expressing ānanda (limitlessness), the more I want to know.
    • In other words: For those who can’t DIRECTLY appreciate you, what are places/things where your glories are pronounced, that it can become an object of meditation (in the limited mind)…
  • VERSE 17-18: Arjuna requests Krishna to reveal His glories…

 

Bhagavad Gita, Chapter 10 – Verse 17:

kathaṃ vidyāmahaṃ yogiṃstvāṃ sadā paricintayan|
keṣu keṣu ca bhāveṣu cintyo'si Bhagavānmayā ||

Oh Lord of all powers! Constantly thinking of you, how can I know ((your true nature)? In what all objects are you to be meditated upon by me, Oh Lord?

 

  • Sadā paricintayan katham vidyām: How can I have permanent vision of your glories, when all I see is objects?
    • ANSWER: Must see behind the perceived object.
      • Vision is of buddhi. It’s not vision of physical eye, but eye of wisdom.
    • So what does “meditating on Īśvara” mean?
      • I see glories of Īśvara through eye of knowledge (essence behind vibhūtis).
        • IE: By meditating on ornaments, I am only ever meditating on Gold.
  • Keṣu keṣu ca bhāveṣu cintayaḥ asi: Which specific objects are to be meditated upon, which STANDS OUT in creation.
    • EG: Some people become popular through own dharmic karmās. Glory which made them popular is Īśvara. Such person becomes focus of meditation for other aspirants. EG: Ramaṇa Maharṣi.
  • Definition of Īśvara glory:
    • Revering something which has value.
    • VALUE: excludes imagined/superimposed value.
      • EG: Gold has 2 values:
        • Intrinsic: Rare, rust proof, malleable.
        • Superimposed: monetary value, status symbol.
    • Meaning to treasure Īśvara glory:
      • Object’s intrinsic value MINUS superimposed value.
      • The intrinsic value is what bhakta contemplates upon.
        • EG: I contemplate Ramaṇa Maharṣi not because his mind is pure. But purity itself is Īśvara’s
  • NEXT VERSE: V18 expands further…

 

Bhagavad Gita, Chapter 10 – Verse 18:

Vistareṇa tmano yogaṃ vibhūtiṃ ca janārdana |
bhūyaḥ kathaya tṛptirhi śṛṇvato nāsti me'mṛtam ||

Oh Krishna! Tell (me) again about Your power and manifestation in detail, because there is no satisfaction for me who is listening to the nectar (of words).

 

  • Vistareṇa ātmanaḥ yogam vibhūtim ca: Please describe your (ātma) yoga/māyā potential, and vibhūtis in detail.
    • NOTE: Krishna already listed some glories in: 7.8, 9.16, 17
    • Why is yoga equated to māyā?
      • Yoga: combination.
      • Māyā: combination of 3 guṇās.
    • Can we directly know māyā?
      • No. Because potential remains unperceived (avyakta).
      • We can only infer (anumāna) māyā’s infinite potential, on bases of manifestations (vibhūti).
        • EG: How to know if person has potential to sing? Person sings!
        • In same way, universe itself is testimony of Bhagavān’s infinite māyā power.
  • Janārdana: 2 definitions from root: √ard
    • Definition 1: Going (gamana)
      • One who makes all asuras – go to unpleasant places, by law of karma. (EG: Narakādi loka)
      • Who are asuras?
        • Benevolent power-hungry devas.
        • Inhere both dharmic/adharmic qualities.
        • Unpredictable. One moment benevolent, another malevolent.
        • Guṇa composition:
          • Raja > tama > sattva (OR) Raja > sattva > tama.
        • Compared to rākṣasa:
          • Villains (evil/wicked).
            • EG: Bhīma's son, Ghaṭotkaca (in Mahābhārata), who actually fought for Truth, against Kauravas. So even rākṣasa can show acts of dharma. Symbolism of this is, there is not such thing as 100% evil in universe. Because all is composed of 3 guṇās. Thus everyone has some sattva-guṇa (responsible for dharmic thoughts).
          • Guṇa composition:
            • Tama > Raja > Sattva.
    • Definition 2: Asking for (yācana)
      • One who is propitiated (appeased) by all people, for receiving either:
        • Limited results: sakāma-bhaktās. Believes seeker is different from sought.
        • Infinite result: niṣkāma-bhaktās. The seeker and sought are not-two.
    • Janārdana (Krishna), narrate to me, because descriptions are like amṛta (nectar) to my ears.
  • VERSE 19-39: Krishna narrates His glories…

 

Verse 19-39: Krishna narrates His glories…

Bhagavad Gita, Chapter 10 – Verse 19:

śrī bhagavān uvāca
hanta te kathayiṣyāmi divyā hyātmavibhūtayaḥ |
prādhānyataḥ kuruśreṣṭha nāstyanto vistarasya me ||

The Lord replied — well, Oh Arjuna I shall tell you the main divine glories of Mine, because there is no limit to My manifestation.

 

  • Krishna is happy with Arjuna’s request. And will explain these special heavenly glories.
  • Nāsti antaḥ vistarasya me: No end to My glories, because they include all 14 lokās.
  • Prādhānyataḥ: For this reason, I will list few important ones.
  • NEXT VERSE: Nirguṇa vibhūti (glory) of sat-cit.

 

Bhagavad Gita, Chapter 10 – Verse 20:

ahamātmā guḍākeśa sarvabhūtāśayasthitaḥ |
ahamādiśca madhyaṃ ca bhūtānāmanta eva ca ||

Oh Arjuna I am the Self residing in the heart of all beings. I am the beginning, the middle, as well as the end of all beings.

 

  • Glory 1: Nirguṇa glory, respect to cit (Consciousness)
    • Krishna (who is always speaking as Īśvara) says, aham ātmā: Because I am ātma (consciousness reflected in the buddhi), then meditate upon ātma (self).
      • What is consciousness?
        • Consciousness is not a part, property or product of the body-mind.
          • Independent principle pervading and enlivening the body-mind.
          • Survives when body dissolves (ajñāni). Or body-mind dissolves (jñāni).
      • By meditating on self, one need not meditate on any glory. Why?
        • Since self is not away from Īśvara (cause of material universe), then meditating upon self, one is simultaneously including on all vibhūtis.
    • Guḍākeśa: refers to Arjuna.
      • 2 Definitions:
        1. One who mastered sleep/tamaḥ. Hence ALERT. Sattvic mind.
        2. Matted hair.
    • Aham ātmā guḍākeśa sarva bhūtāśaya-sthitaḥ: Arjuna, I am ātmā, the self obtaining in (your) very buddhi.
      • I aware > ahaṅkāra’s “I AM”.
      • I aware > buddhi’s thoughts / absence of.
      • Meaning:
        • In Arjuna, is Bhagavān. Not limited to just Arjuna.
        • “Arjuna” is a temporary superimposition (upādhi) owning to māyā.
        • Arjuna is saguṇa name/form. Arjuna aparā-prakṛti.
    • SUMMARY: If you seek most powerful contemplation upon Īśvara, contemplate on ātmā. Nididhyāsanam.
      • 2nd alternative: continue śravaṇam / mananam.
  • Glory 2: Nirguṇa glory, respect to sat (existence: IS-ness)
    • Aham ādiḥ bhūtānām: I am efficient (nimitta-kāraṇam) and material cause (upādāna-kāraṇam) of jagat.
      • Meaning manifestation, sustenance and dissolution enjoy their IS-ness (their existence), because of Me.
      • Thus IS-ness of anything refers to Īśvara’s material cause… put together by the efficient cause.
        • EG: Bange IS, necklace IS, ring IS, etc. IS-ness possible because of one Gold.
        • In other words, cause (yoga) is always manifest IN the effect (vibūti), as the VERY existence of the effect.
      • How to can invoke Īśvara in any object?
        • Extract the intrinsic value from the object. Then appreciate what’s left, as Īśvara’s vibhūti.
          • EG: “I love sugar” is personal value.
            • But intrinsic value being: “sweetness IS”.
            • Then contemplate on the sweetness, as Īśvara’s
  • 2 Glories combined (sat + cit) = I AM.
    • I: exit.
    • AM: as awarenesss.
  • NEXT VERSE: Saguṇa vibhūtis are listed…

 

Bhagavad Gita, Chapter 10 – Verse 21:

ādityānāmahaṃ viṣṇurjyotiṣāṃ raviraṃśumān |
marīcirmarutāmasmi nakṣatrāṇāmahaṃ śaśī ||

I am viṣṇuḥ among the Adityas, (I am) the radiant sun among the luminaries, I am mariciḥ among the Maruts, I am the moon among the luminaries of the night.

 

  • Ādityānām aham viṣṇuh: Āditya is a devata related to Sun.
    • There are 12 āditya-devatās (in pitṛ-loka), obtaining in 12 months of the year.
      • Even though Sun is one, it has 12 faces, from standpoint of Earth’s rotation around it.
    • Who is Viṣṇu?
      • Īśvara, when viewed from standpoint of sustenance.
    • Therefore, I am Viṣṇu, the sustainer of all 12 ādityas.
  • Jyotiṣām raviḥ aṁśumān: Among luminous bodies in sky, I am the sun, with it’s brilliant powerful rays.
    • I am the sun, which is the center of our solar system.
    • I energize the solar system, and give life to earth… whom all dwell upon.
    • This is why in Vedic tradition, we wake up before sun rises. To welcome the Lord, because He is coming to bless us, for one more day.
  • Marīciḥ marutām asmi:
    • There are 49 devatās called marut. Divided into 7 groups. Each group preside over an aspect of vāyu (wind).
    • Among these 49, I am Marīci, presiding deity of tender, pleasant, cool breeze. Which all enjoy.
      • Opposite is: Cyclone.
  • nakṣatrāṇām ahaṃ śaśī: Amongst the luminaries at night (like stars, planets), I am the brightest one, the moon.
    • Therefore we can even acknowledge the moon, as manifestation of Lord.
    • 2nd interpretation:
      • Nakṣatra: place one goes (after death). IE: loka.
        • And candra-loka is a better one.
          • NOTE: Candra (moon) in this 2nd interpretation is not referring to “physical moon”.
  • Point is, even the greatest-devatās we worship, lend their glory from Īśvara.
    • If one knows this, then won’t fall for worshipping, entertaining or wasting time on researching: angels, star children, channeled beings, aliens, NWO, poltergeists, illuminati, freemasons, pseudoscience, etc…
  • NEXT VERSE: I am glories, continues…

 

Bhagavad Gita, Chapter 10 – Verse 22:

vedānāṃ sāmavedo'smi devānāmasmi vāsavaḥ |
indriyāṇāṃ manaścāsmi bhūtānāmasmi cetanā ||

I am Samaveda among the Vedas, I am Indra among the Gods; I am the mind among the senses and I am the intelligence in all the beings.

 

  • vedānām sāma vedaḥ asmi: I am Sāma Veda.
    • Vedās are texts which are revealed by ṛṣi’s.
    • Considered most sacred texts in Vedic tradition, wherefrom karma-kāṇḍa and upaniṣads are found.
    • Most glorious is Sāma Veda. Because it is musical in nature. Other 3 are chanted.
      • Beautiful to listen to. So most attractive.
      • Also “Tat Tvam Asi” found in Sāma.
  • Devānām asmi vāsavaḥ: Among various devās (gods), I am Indra.
    • Just how 1 manu (L80) governs 1/14th of Brahmāji’s day (4.32Bil), there is also Indra alongside, who governs all other devatās of various aspects of creation (EG: fire, wind, etc).
    • Indra is like tax auditor, ensuring other devatās continue honest duty.
    • Noteworthy, all devatās are saṃsāri jīvās – holding big titles because of earthly puṇya-karma. Once exhausted, back to earth.
  • indriyāṇām aham asmi manaḥ: Amongst all sense-organs, I am the mind.
    • Jñāna-indriyāni are also Īśvara.
    • Each jñāna-indriya is limited to functioning in one field.
    • Whereas mind is behind all sense-organs.
      • Mind is bases where knowledge of all 5 sense-organs is cognized.
      • Meaning mind can function in all 5-fields. Thus it’s superior.
    • Learn to see own mind as greatest manifestation of Īśvara.
  • Bhūtānām asmi cetanā: I am buddhi, the faculty of cognition. The capacity to enquire/understand.
    • Meaning, I give that capacity which makes person say: “Ah! It’s clear now!”
    • 2nd interpretation: I am the very life-sentiency in every being.
      • Therefore practice ahimsa throughout all your actions.

 

Keywords: acarya, acharya, aditya, ajnani, amrita amrta, anta karana, antahkarana, anumana, apara-prakriti prakrti, aparoksha aparoksa, atma, bhagavan, brahmaji, cetana, devatas, divya, gudakesa gudakesha, indiryani, ishvara, janardana, jnani, karma kanda, karmas, marici, maya, naksatra nakshatra, narakadi, nididhyasanam, nimitta-karanam, nirguna, nishkama niskama, pitr pitri loka, purushottam purusottama, raga dvesa dvesha, raksasa, rakshasa, rakshashas, ramana maharishi maharshi, rsi rishi, saguna, sakama, samsari jivas, sarva-jnana, sarva-shakti sakti, shastra sastra, sravana shravana, svarupa, upadana-karana, vayu, vibhuti, virat, vishva visva rupa, visnu vishnu, yacana

 

Credit for help in Bhagavad Gita teaching given to Swami Dayananda (Arsha Vidya), Paramarthananda & Chinmaya Mission

Recorded 18 Feb, 2020

 

Leave a Comment